Activity 13: Regulate trade in captive bred and artificially propagated Specimens

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: Regulate trade in captive bred and artificially propagated specimens – general

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Specimens of an animal species included in Appendix I bred in captivity for commercial purposes, or of a plant species included in Appendix I artificially propagated for commercial purposes, shall be deemed to be specimens of species included in Appendix II: CITES Article VII.4 SEE COMMENTARY 1
  • Where a Management Authority of the State of export is satisfied that any specimen of an animal species was bred in captivity or any specimen of a plant species was artificially propagated, or is a part of such an animal or plant or was derived there from, a certificate by that Management Authority to that effect shall be accepted in lieu of any of the permits or certificates required under the provisions of Article III, IV or V: CITES Article VII.5 SEE COMMENTARY 1
  • Parties to encourage ex situ operations that breed or artificially propagate Appendix I species to seek cooperative measures that would support in situ conservation: CITES Resolution 13.9 (a)
  • Parties to encourage ex situ operations that breed or artificially propagate Appendix I species with the range State to support in situ conservation programmes: CITES Resolution 13.9 (b)
  • Scientific Authorities to review all applications submitted for consideration under Articles VII.4 & VII.5 and advise their Management Authorities whether the facility meets the relevant criteria: CITES Resolution 10.3, Recommends (m)
Component 2: Regulate trade in captive bred animals

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • A captive breeding operation may only be registered according to the procedure in this Resolution if specimens produced by that operation qualify as ‘bred in captivity’ according to provisions of CITES Resolution 10.16 (Rev): CITES Resolution 12.10 (Rev CoP14) Resolves (a) SEE COMMENTARY 2
  • Parties shall strictly implement the provisions of Article IV of the Convention with respect to specimens of species included in Appendix I originating from operations that breed such specimens in captivity for commercial purposes: CITES Resolution 12.10 (Rev CoP14) Resolves (e) SEE COMMENTARY 3
  • The Management Authority shall satisfy itself that the captive-breeding operation will make a continuing meaningful contribution according to the conservation needs of the species concerned: CITES Resolution 12.10 (Rev CoP14) Resolves (j)
  • Parties, prior to the establishment of captive-breeding operations for exotic species, undertake and assessment of the ecological risks, in order to safeguard against any negative effects on local ecosystems and native species: CITES Resolution 12.10 (Rev CoP14) Urges (a)
  • The term ‘bred in captivity’ shall be interpreted to refer only to specimens, born or otherwise produced in a controlled environment, and shall apply only if…ii) the breeding stock, to the satisfaction of the competent government authorities of the exporting country:
    • A. was established in accordance with the provisions of CITES and relevant national laws and in a manner not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild;
    • B. is maintained without the introduction of specimens from the wild, except for the occasional addition of animals, eggs or gametes, in accordance with the provisions of CITES and relevant national laws and in a manner not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild as advised by the Scientific Authority:
    • C. 2. is managed in a manner that has been demonstrated to be capable of reliably producing second-generation offspring in a controlled environment: CITES Resolution 10.16 (Rev)
Component 3: Regulate trade in artificially propagated plants

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • The term ‘artificially propagated’ shall be interpreted to refer to plant specimens: a) grown under controlled conditions; and b) grown from seeds, cuttings, divisions, callus tissues or other plant tissues, spores or other propagules that either are exempt or have been derived from cultivated parental stock: CITES Resolution 11.11 (Rev CoP14)
  • Plants grown from cuttings or divisions are considered to be artificially propagated only if the traded specimens do not contain any material collected from the wild; but an exception may be granted and specimens deemed to be artificially propagated if grown from wild-collected seeds or spores only if, for the taxon involved…iv) the relevant Scientific Authority of that range State has determined that: A. collection of the seeds or spores was not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild; and B. allowing trade in such specimens has a positive effect on the conservation of wild populations. At a minimum, to comply with paragraph iv) A. and B. above: i) collection of seeds or spores for this purpose is limited in such a manner such as to allow regeneration of the wild population; ii) a portion of the plants produced under such circumstances is used to establish plantations to serve as cultivated parental stock in the future and become an additional source of seeds or spores and thus reduce or eliminate the need to collect seeds from the wild; and iii) a portion of the plants produced under such circumstances is used for replanting in the wild, to enhance recovery of existing populations or to re-establish populations that have been extirpated: CITES Resolution 11.11 (Rev CoP14)
  • The Management Authority shall, to register a nursery artificially propagating and exporting specimens of Appendix I species, provide…iv) if the nursery uses wild-collected seeds from the national population of the species, certification that the relevant conditions specified in CITES Resolution 11.11 (Rev CoP13) have been met: CITES Resolution 9.19 (Rev CoP13) Annex 2 SEE COMMENTARY 4

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Author Commentary 1

CITES Article VII.4
CITES Article VII.5
The Parties have indicated (in the preambular paragraphs of CITES Resolution 10.16 (Rev)) that Article VII.4 requires that specimens of Appendix I species bred in captivity for commercial purposes shall be deemed to be specimens of species included in Appendix II and that therefore they shall be traded in accordance with the provisions of Article IV. This means that the ‘non-detriment’ conditions of Article IV must be met.

Author Commentary 2

CITES Resolution 12.10 (Rev CoP14) Resolves (a)This paragraph refers to provisions of CITES Resolution 10.16 that include ‘non-detriment’ provisions.

Author Commentary 3

CITES Resolution 12.10 (Rev CoP14) Resolves (e)The provisions of CITES Article IV, referred to here, include ‘non-detriment’ provisions.

Author Commentary 4

CITES Resolution 9.19 (Rev CoP13) Annex 2
This paragraph reinforces the paragraphs in CITES Resolution 11.11 (Rev CoP14) that require that artificial propagation takes place in a way not detrimental to the survival of the species in the wild.