Activity 6: Maintain or enhance resilience of natural systems

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: Maintain resilience of natural systems in general

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Take measures to manage ecosystems to maintain their resilience to extreme climatic events and to help mitigate and adapt to climate change: CBD Decision VII/15, 12
  • Reduce non-climatic stress factors on World Heritage sites to enhance resilience to climate change impacts: World Heritage Decision 30 COM 7.1, 8 and WHC-06/30.COM/7.1 (Strategy to assist States Parties to implement appropriate management responses) SEE COMMENTARY 18
  • By 2008, core areas of the Pan-European Ecological Network conserved and the Pan European Ecological Network guiding all major land use and planning policies and operations of relevant economic and financial sectors: Kiev Resolution no. 5
  • By 2008, financial subsidy and incentive schemes for agriculture in the pan European region will consider the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity: Kiev Resolution no. 3

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Take the appropriate legal, scientific, technical, administrative and financial measures necessary for the protection, conservation and rehabilitation of natural heritage properties: WHC Article 5(d)
  • Ensure that the outstanding universal value, the conditions of integrity and/or authenticity of World Heritage properties are maintained or enhanced in the future: WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 96 SEE COMMENTARY 1
Component 2: Enhance resilience of marine and coastal zones

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for coastal zone management: UNFCCC Article 4.1(e) and KP Article 11.2
  • Take measures to manage coastal and marine ecosystems, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs to maintain their resilience to extreme climatic events: CBD Decision VII/5, 8
  • Maximize the effectiveness of marine and coastal protected areas and networks in achieving their biodiversity objectives by urgently addressing all threats to them: CBD Decision VII/5, 8
  • Identify, test and refine management regimes to enhance reef resilience to and recover from raised sea temperatures and/or coral bleaching: CBD Decision VII/5, 4 and CBD Decision VII/5, Annex I (elaborated programme of work on marine and coastal biological diversity) SEE COMMENTARY 2
Component 3: Enhance resilience of water resources and agriculture

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 4: Enhance resilience of areas affected by drought, desertification and floods

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Develop and elaborate appropriate and integrated plans for protection and rehabilitation of areas, particularly in Africa, affected by drought and desertification, as well as floods: UNFCCC Article 4.1(e) and KP Article 11.2
  • Integrate sustainable land management issues within the UNFCCC national adaptation programmes of action (NAPAs): UNCCD Decision 12/COP.7, 7
Component 5: Enhance resilience of wetlands

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 6: Enhance resilience of mountain ecosystems

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 7: Enhance adaptive capacity of migratory species

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Maintain a network of suitable habitats appropriately disposed in relation to the migration routes of migratory species in CMS agreements: CMS Article 5(f)
  • Produce guidance to help CMS Parties introduce adaptation measures to help counteract the effects of climate change on migratory species: CMS Resolution 8.13, 2 SEE COMMENTARY 9
  • Implement adaptation measures that would help reduce the foreseeable adverse effects of climate change on Appendix 1 species: CMS Resolution 8.13, 3 SEE COMMENTARY 10
  • Ensure that migratory species are integrated into National Biodiversity Plans of Action (NBSAPs) as well as to other activities to implement the CBD Programmes of Work: CMS Resolution 8.18, 1
  • Review the extent to which CMS and CMS cetacean-related Agreements are addressing climate change through their abatement activities: CMS Resolution 8.22, 3(b) SEE COMMENTARY 11
Component 8: Enhance resilience of forest ecosystems

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 9: enhance resilience of protected areas

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 10: enhance resilience of dry and sub-humid lands

Directly relevant obligations and commitments


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Author Commentary 1

WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 96
Authenticity and integrity are defined at WHC Operational Guidelines II.E, 79-95.

Author Commentary 2

CBD Decision VII/5, Annex I
This refers to subparagraph 1(a)(ii) under Management actions and strategies to support reef resilience, rehabilitation and recovery, an action identified as being of highest priority for implementation. Specific examples given of means to implement these actions are the application of appropriate protective status, reduction of reef stressors, and management of reef communities.

Author Commentary 3

CBD Decision V/5, Annex
This refers to activity no. 2.1 under Programme element 2. Adaptive management. One of the specific issues that the case studies are required to deal with is the role of genetic diversity in providing resilience, reducing vulnerability, and enhancing adaptability of production systems to changing environments and needs. According to CBD Decision V/5, Appendix, agricultural biodiversity provides the following climate-related ecological services: erosion control and climate regulations and sequestration.

Author Commentary 4

Ramsar Resolution IX.9, 22
This is directed at the Ramsar Secretariat.

Author Commentary 5

Ramsar Resolution VIII.3, 14
Measures suggested include promoting wetland and watershed protection and restoration.

Author Commentary 6

Ramsar Resolution VIII.25, 7
Ramsar Resolution VIII.25, Annex
This refers to Action 3.3.1 of Operational Objective 3.3: Increase recognition of significance of wetlands for reasons of water supply, coastal protection, flood defense, food security, poverty alleviation, cultural heritage, and scientific research under Operational Objective 3. Integration of wetland wise use into sustainable development.

Author Commentary 7

CBD Decision VII/27, 1
CBD Decision VII/27, Annex
This refers to Action 1.2.1 under Goal 1.2: To protect, recover and restore mountain biological diversity, Programme element 1: Direct actions for conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing. The objective is to enhance the capacity of mountain ecosystems to resist and adapt to climate change or recover from its negative impacts. Examples provided under this activity include establishing corridors and taking appropriate measures to maintain ecological function of natural corridors, where appropriate, to enable vertical migration of species, ensuring minimal viable population sizes to enable genetic adaptation to changing environmental conditions. The activity also notes that such programmes should include socio-economic considerations, especially in relation to indigenous and local communities.

Author Commentary 8

CBD Decision VII/27, 1
CBD Decision VII/27, Annex
This refers to Action 2.1.8 under Goal 2.1. To enhance the legal, policy, institutional, and economic framework of Programme element 2: Means of implementation for conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing.

Author Commentary 9

CMS Resolution 8.13, 2
This is directed at the Secretariat, which is instructed to work with the CMS Scientific Council and secretariats of the CMS daughter agreements and their scientific advisory bodies. The 4th prefatory clause of the resolution recognizes that climate change may significantly affect the behaviour, distribution, and abundance of migratory species and may change the ecological character of their habitats.

Author Commentary 10

CMS Resolution 8.13, 3
This is directed at Parties and non-Party range states. CMS Appendix I [http://www.cms.int/pdf/en/appendix_I_II/Appendix_I_en.pdf] lists migratory species that are endangered.

Author Commentary 11

CMS Resolution 8.22, 3(b)
This is addressed to the CMS Secretariat and Scientific Council. CMS Resolution 8.22, 3(c) further asks the CMS Secretariat and Scientific Council to proritise impacts and regions requiring most urgent attention and develop recommendations on how these priorities can be addressed by CMS.

Author Commentary 12

CBD Decision VI/22, 10
CBD Decision VI/22, Annex
The relevant programme element is Programme element 1: conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing, goal 1: to apply the ecosystem approach to the management of all types of forests, Objective 3: mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on forest biodiversity, Activity (c).

Author Commentary 13

CBD Decision VI/22, 10
CBD Decision VI/22, Annex
The relevant programme element is Programme element 1: conservation, sustainable use and benefit-sharing, goal 1: to apply the ecosystem approach to the management of all types of forests, Objective 3: mitigate the negative impacts of climate change on forest biodiversity, Activity (b).

Author Commentary 14

CBD Decision VIII/1, 3
CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex
This refers to Action 12.2. of Goal 3: Address the threats to island biological diversity, under programme element E.: Goals, targets and timeframes, and island-specific priority actions for the Parties.

Author Commentary 15

CBD Decision VIII/2, 3
CBD Decision VIII/2, Annex
This refers to Goal 7. Address challenges to biodiversity from climate change and pollution, Target 7.1 of the Provisional goals and targets for the programme of work on the biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands.

Author Commentary 16

CBD Decision VIII/2, 3
CBD Decision VIII/2, Annex
This refers to Goal 8. Maintain capacity of ecosystems to deliver goods and services and support livelihoods, Target 8.1 of the Provisional goals and targets for the programme of work on the biological diversity of dry and sub-humid lands.

Author Commentary 17

MOU of CEM Article IX a
Common policies to be adopted include those on commercial plantation forest reserves as well as joint promotion of common forest practice such as tree planting, afforestation in order to reduce the depletion of natural forests and avoid.

Author Commentary 18

World Heritage Decision 30 COM 7.1, 8 and WHC-06/30. COM/7.1: This refers to II. B. Preventive Actions 17.c) ii).

Author Commentary 19

This obligation is duplicated in the Sustainable Use module [Legislative Measures and National Policies, and Management], the Inland Waters module [Management], the Protected Areas module [Management], and the IAS module [Management] and the Climate Change & Biodiversity module [Adaptation].

Author Commentary 20

This obligation is duplicated in the Adaptation section of this module.