This section groups the obligations that relate to monitoring, research and assessment of the links between biodiversity and climate change. The section starts with the obligation to demonstrate the benefits of biological diversity to climate change-related work (Activity 1), which is broken down into five components: assessment of how the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in general and forest biological diversity in particular can contribute to work on climate change (Component 1 and 2) and assessment of how wetlands, island ecosystems and dry and sub-humid lands contribute to climate change work (Component 2, 3 and 4). The other side of the issue, the effects of climate change and its response measures to biodiversity, is explored in Activity 2, which begins with the general obligation to identify effects of climate change and its response measures to biological diversity, using wetlands on the Ramsar list as a baseline and reference area to detect trends relating to biological diversity climate change and desertification (Component 1) and moves on to specific areas, namely, wetlands and livelihoods (Component 2), migratory species (Component 3), invasive alien species (Component 4), and mountain biological diversity (Component 5). In the area of invasive alien species, please see the related section on assessment under the Invasive Alien Species module. Activity 3 then calls for the assessment of vulnerability and adaptability of World Heritage sites and specific ecosystems and species, i.e., mountain ecosystems (Component 1), species in mountain ecosystems (Component 2), migratory species (Component 3), wetland ecosystems (Component 4), and coastal and marine ecosystems (Component 5). To ensure the use of appropriate technology, Activity 4 requires the conduct of technology needs assessment. Activity 5 presents obligations that relate to monitoring the effects of climate change and climate change-related activities on biodiversity, while Activity 6 looks at various obligations to assess the impacts of UNFCCC and KP related activities on biodiversity, including obligations of those participating in Clean Development Mechanism projects.
Most obligations on assessment can be found in CBD COP decisions, particularly the programmes of work. Those relating to wetlands in particularly come from Ramsar COP resolutions, while those on migratory species were derived from CMS COP resolutions. The UNFCCC and KP provisions and COP and COP/MOP decisions provide some general principles that relate to the various activities mentioned in this section.