Stakeholders and indigenous and local communities
This section includes all obligations and commitments relating to stakeholders and indigenous and local communities at any stage of PA implementation and management. Traditional knowledge, innovations and practices is a cross-cutting issue in CBD and appears in many activities in the CBD programme of work on protected areas. This section particularly includes activities from goal 2.1, “to promote equity and benefit-sharing”, and goal 2.2, “to enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders”, of the CBD programme of work on PAs. While CBD is often viewed as providing the most extensive approach, stakeholders and indigenous and local communities are as important to Ramsar and WHC, particularly at the national and local levels, especially in the establishment and planning of sites.
Many of the provisions in this section are duplicated in other sections due to the cross-cutting nature of this issue. There is particular duplication in the section on legislation and policy, reflecting recognition of the need to change policies and legislation to protect and enable stakeholders and indigenous and local communities to participate in PA processes.
This section contains obligations and commitments predominantly from the last two Conferences of the Parties of CBD, with some from the Ramsar Convention, UNCCD and WHC. This reveals the relatively recent awareness of the importance of stakeholders and traditional knowledge in conservation and sustainable use. Activities are defined by the most pressing issues for Parties and include participation of stakeholders and indigenous and local communities, reducing impacts on indigenous and local communities and preserving customs.
Activities (with a brief description) included in this section are (use these titles for the activities)
- Make PA processes participatory to stakeholders and indigenous and local communities: including participation in PA establishment and management; the sharing of knowledge and technologies; and increasing understanding between indigenous and local communities and others.
- Create benefits of PAs to stakeholders and indigenous and local communities and reduce negative impacts: mitigating or preventing negative impacts of PAs or developments on sacred sites; carrying out environmental impact assessments; sharing jobs and wealth created by PAs.
- Preserve the customs, knowledge and resources of stakeholders and indigenous and local communities: documenting traditional knowledge, preserving the customs or the resources that indigenous and local communities depend on, and respecting the rights and ownership of indigenous and local communities.