Activity 2: Assess PA impacts, threats and resources

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: Assess threats to PAs

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 2: Assess effectiveness of PAs

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Assess the status and trends of the biodiversity of dry and sub-humid lands, including landraces, and the effectiveness of conservation measures. This obligation is duplicated in the assessing sites activity of the assessment section: CBD Decision V/23, 3 and CBD Decision V/23, Annex SEE COMMENTARY 33
  • Conduct case-studies on socio-economic and ecological analyses of different land-use management options and provide such case-studies to the Secretariat: CBD Decision IV/6, 4

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Author Commentary 1

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex: This is Activity 1.5.5 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 1.5, which aims to prevent and mitigate the negative impact of key threats to PAs. This obligation is duplicated in the threats activity of the management section.

Author Commentary 2

CBD Decision VI/7, 2 and CBD Decision VI/7, Annex: part c of category a in Appendix 2 of Annex. See questions IV and V in Appendix 1 to screen impacts. Activities having a direct influence on PAs include emissions into the area, diversion of surface water that flows through the area, extraction of groundwater in a shared aquifer, disturbance by noise or lights or air pollution.

Author Commentary 3

Ramsar Resolution VII.16, 10 repeats and specifies the contents of Ramsar Recommendation 1.6.

Author Commentary 4

CBD Decision VIII/28, 5: The voluntary guidelines are found in the Annex to CBD Decision VIII/28. They should be implemented in the context of paragraph 1 (a) of Article 14 of the Convention and of target 5.1 of the provisional framework of goals and targets for assessing progress towards 2010.

Author Commentary 5

CBD Decision VII/14, 10 and CBD Decision VII/14, Annex: This is guideline 35 and parts a and f of guideline 41 in the guidelines on biodiversity and tourism development. Refer to guidelines 39 and 4, which advise that stakeholders and indigenous and local communities should participate in impact assessments.

Author Commentary 6

CBD Decision VII/16, F6 and CBD Decision VII/16, Annex to part F: This is part 37 of the Akwe: Kon Voluntary Guidelines for impact assessments for developments on sacred sites. Baseline studies should be conducted in consultation with the affected indigenous and local communities and include whether potentially affected habitat types are represented elsewhere in conservation reserves, and whether particular crop species and varieties are represented in ex situ collections. They should include identification of significant habitat (breeding/spawning grounds, native vegetation, wild-life refuge areas including buffer zones and corridors, habitats and routes for migratory species) and breeding seasons for endangered and critical species; Identification of areas of economic significance (as hunting areas and trapping sites, fishing grounds, gathering areas, grazing lands, timber harvesting sites and other harvesting areas); Identification of significant physical features which provide for biodiversity (e.g. watercourses, springs, lakes, mines/quarries that supply local needs); and identification of sites of religious, spiritual, ceremonial and sacred significance. This obligation is duplicated in the impacts activity of the SIL section.

Author Commentary 7

CBD Decision VII/4, 10 and CBD Decision VII/4, Annex: This is goal 3.3 of the revised programme of work on inland water biodiversity, which should be referred to for specific activities. Impact assessments should consider sacred sites and lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities. This obligation is duplicated in the activity on impacts activity of the SIL section.

Author Commentary 8

CBD Decision VI/10, 12 and CBD Decision VI/10, Annex: paragraph 6 under cultural impact assessments. See paragraph 4 for examples of cultural aspects. Annex II regards recommendations for the conduct of cultural, environmental and social impact assessments for developments proposed on areas traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities.

Author Commentary 9

Author Commentary 10

Author Commentary 11

Author Commentary 12

CBD Decision VI/7, 2 and CBD Decision VI/7, Annex: part a of category B in Appendix 2 of Annex. See questions I to V in Appendix 1 to screen impacts. These areas may include Ramsar sites, areas allocated to indigenous and local communities, extractive reserves, landscape preservation areas, sites covered by international treaties or conventions for preservation of natural and/or cultural heritage such as the UNESCO biosphere reserves and World Heritage Sites.

Author Commentary 13

CBD Decision VI/7, 2 and CBD Decision VI/7, Annex: part b (iii) of category B in Appendix 2 of Annex. See questions IV and V in Appendix 1 to screen impacts. Activities include all extractive activities related to the use of resources on which biodiversity depends (exploitation of surface and groundwater, open pit mining of soil components such as clay, sand, gravel, etc.); all activities involving the clearing or flooding of land; all activities leading to pollution of the environment; activities leading to the displacement of people; all activities leading to reproductive isolation of ecosystems; all activities that significantly affect ecosystem functions that represent values for society (see appendix 3 for a list of functions provided by nature); all activities in areas of known importance for biodiversity, such as areas containing high diversity (hot spots), large numbers of endemic or threatened species, or wilderness; required by migratory species; of social, economic, cultural or scientific importance; or which are representative, unique (e.g. where rare or sensitive species occur) or associated with key evolutionary or other biological processes.

Author Commentary 14

CMS Recommendation 7.2, b: asks Parties to determine the impact of by-catch on migratory species whilst CMS Resolution 6.2, 2 asks to protect migratory species from by-catch. Schemes should include, where appropriate, onboard observers, and where relevant, this should be carried out in the context of FAO’s International Plans of Action on Seabirds and Sharks.

Author Commentary 15

Ramsar Resolution VIII.9, 19: This obligation is duplicated in the planning activity of the management section.

Author Commentary 16

UNCCD Decision 4/7, 1 and Decision 4/7, Annex V: regards regional implementation for Central and Eastern Europe. This is part c of Article 4, which lists activities for parties of the region in preparing and implementing national action programmes pursuant to articles 9 and 10 of the Convention.

Author Commentary 17

Ramsar Resolution VII. 16, 14: This obligation is duplicated in the cooperate internationally activity of the cooperation section.

Author Commentary 18

MAB Statutory Framework Article 5, 2: Proposals for extension follow the same procedure as described for new designations in paragraph 1 of this Article. This obligation is duplicated in the management planning activity of the management section.

Author Commentary 19

MAB Seville Strategy Recommendation 1.1, 3: Objective 1.1 aims to improve the coverage of natural and cultural biodiversity by means of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves.

Author Commentary 20

MAB Seville Strategy Recommendation 4.2, 14: Evaluation is required in the Statutory Framework. This obligation is duplicated in the provide funding activity of the resources section.

Author Commentary 21

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : This is Activity 1.1.4 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 1.1, which encourages the establishment and strengthening of national and regional PA systems. It encourages that any review should be conducted with the full and effective participation of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders. The review should include innovative types of governance for PAs that need to be recognized and promoted through legal, policy, financial institutional and community mechanisms, such as protected areas run by Government agencies at various levels, co-managed protected areas, private protected areas, indigenous and local community conserved areas.

Author Commentary 22

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex: This is Activity 1.1.5 of the PAs programme of work, part of Goal 1.1, which encourages the establishment and strengthening of national and regional PA systems. It is recommended that Parties take into account terrestrial, marine and inland water biodiversity and ecosystems. The gap analyses should take into account relevant criteria such as irreplaceability of target biodiversity components, minimum effective size and viability requirements, species migration requirements, integrity, ecological processes and ecosystem services.

Author Commentary 23

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex: This is Activity 1.2.1 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 1.2, which aims to integrate PAs into broader land and seascapes and sectors so as to maintain ecological structure and function.

Author Commentary 24

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex: This is Activity 2.1.1 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 2.1, which aims to promote equity and benefit-sharing.

Author Commentary 25

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : This is Activity 2.2.1 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 2.2: To enhance and secure involvement of indigenous and local communities and relevant stakeholders. National reviews should be carried out in a participatory manner ensuring gender and social equity for national policy, PA systems and individual sites. This obligation is duplicated in the participation activity of the SIL section.

Author Commentary 26

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : This is Activity 3.1.2 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 3.1, which aims to provide an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic environment for PAs.

Commentary 27

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : This is Activity 3.2.1 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 3.2, which aims to build capacity for the planning, establishment and management of PAs. This obligation is duplicated in the capacity-building activity of the resources section.

Author Commentary 28

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex: This is Activity 3.3.2 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 3.3: To develop, apply and transfer appropriate technologies for protected areas. This activity should involve indigenous and local communities and stakeholders such as the, research institutions, non-Governmental organizations and the private sector.

Author Commentary 29

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex: This is Activity 3.4.1 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 3.4, which aims to ensure financial sustainability of protected areas and national and regional systems of protected areas. It is suggested that when assessing the financial resources and needs for PAs consideration is also given to the whole range of possible funding instruments, for example public funding, debt for nature swaps, elimination of perverse incentives and subsidies, private funding, taxes and fees for ecological services.

Author Commentary 30

CBD Decision VI/22, 28 and CBD Decision VI/22, Annex : part a of objective 3 'ensure adequate and effected protected forest area networks' under goal 3 in programme element 1 of the Annex, which is the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity.

Author Commentary 31

CBD Decision VI/22, 28 and CBD Decision VI/22, Annex : part d of objective 3 'ensure adequate and effected protected forest area networks' under goal 3 in programme element 1 of the Annex, which is the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity. This obligation is duplicated in the planning activity of the management section.

Author Commentary 32

CBD Decision VI/22, 28 and CBD Decision VI/22, Annex : part e of objective 3 'ensure adequate and effected protected forest area networks' under goal 3 in programme element 1 of the Annex, which is the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity.

Author Commentaire 33

CBD Decision V/23, 3 and CBD Decision V/23, Annex : activity 1 under paragraph 6 of the draft programme of work on dry and sub-humid lands.