Activity 3: Monitor PAs

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: Monitor PAs

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 2: Support or facilitate monitoring of PAs

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments


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Author Commentary 1

MAB Statutory Framework Article 9 : Refer to paragraphs 2 to 9. Article 4 sets out the general criteria for an area to be qualified for designation as a biosphere reserve

Author Commentary 2

MAB Seville Strategy Recommendation 4.2, 20 : See the implementation indicators at the national level on p. 12 of the Seville Strategy. Goal 4 is to implement the biosphere reserve concept.

Author Commentary 3

Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008, Operational Objective 11.2 : Action 11.2.1 under this Operational Objective points to the Convention’s Wetlands Risk Assessment Framework, as contained in Ramsar Resolution VII.1, Annex. The Montreux Records, established by Ramsar Recommendation 4.8, is a record of Ramsar sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occcuring or are likely to occur. Ramsar Advisory Missions are a technical assistance mechanism; they are carried out to sites the ecological character of which is threatened.

Author Commentary 4

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : This is Activity 4.3.2 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 4.3: To assess and monitor PA status and trends. This obligation is duplicated in the reporting activity of the CEPA section.

Author Commentary 5

Ramsar Resolution VIII.35, 16 (see activity 7) partly repeats Ramsar Resolution VIII.35, 15.

Author Commentary 6

Ramsar Resolution VIII.7, 22, Ramsar Resolution VIII.8, 12 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.8, 2 are largely identical in their request to Contracting Parties to report to the Ramsar Bureau changes in the ecological character of Ramsar sites, thus implementing Ramsar Article 3, 2. Ramsar Resolution VIII.8, 12, Ramsar Resolution VIII.8, 13 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.8, 2 have been reaffirmed by Ramsar Resolution IX.15, 2.

Author Commentary 7

CBD Article 7, b : Annex 1 (part 1) includes ecosystems and habitats containing high diversity, large numbers of endemic or threatened species, or wilderness, required by migratory species, of social, economic, cultural or scientific importance, or, which are representative, unique or associated with key evolutionary or other biological processes.

Author Commentary 8

UNCCD Article 16 : parts a to g should be referred to for details. This would help early warning and advance planning for periods of adverse climatic variation in a form suited for practical application by users at all levels, including local populations. Affected areas are arid, semi-arid and/or dry sub-humid areas affected or threatened by desertification.

Author Commentary 9

CBD Decision VII/4, 10 and CBD Decision VII/4, Annex : This is goal 3.4 of the revised programme of work on inland water biodiversity, which should be referred to for specific activities.

Author Commentary 10

CITES Decision 13.38, c : Applies to States and territories in the wider Caribbean region.

Author Commentary 11

CITES Decision 13.58, b : This applies to the range States of Swietenia macrophylla.

Author Commentary 12

CBD Decision VI/9, 2 and CBD Decision VI/9, Annex : part (ii) under 5 (a) 'Understanding and documenting plant diversity' in the objectives of the Annex, which is a global strategy for plant conservation.

Author Commentary 13

CMS Recommendation 7.6, 1 : This is part c of CMS Recommendation 7.6, 1. It applies to the Range States of the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and eastern Atlantic Ocean regions.

Author Commentary 14

CBD Decision V/3, 2 and CBD Decision V/3, Annex : part b of the responses to section A in the Annex, which sets out priority areas for action on coral bleaching. To fulfill this obligation, support and expand the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and regional networks, and data-repository and dissemination systems including Reef Base.

Author Commentary 15

WHC Decision 17 COM Agenda item IX, part IX.5 : This obligation is duplicated in the reporting activity of the CEPA section.

Author Commentary 16

CMS Recommendation 5.4, b: applies to Parties and non-Parties to the Convention that are Range States for the Asiatic subspecies of the Houbara bustard (Chlamydotis undulata).

Author Commentary 17

CMS Recommendation 4.1, 1d : applies to Parties and non-Parties to the Convention that are Range States for migratory species of cormorants.

Author Commentary 18

Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex, 1.3: This obligation is duplicated in the research activity of the assessment section.

Author Commentary 19

MAB Statutory Framework Article 7, 1 : The Network refers to the World Network of Biosphere Reserves. This obligation is duplicated in the cooperate internationally activity of the cooperation section.

Author Commentary 20

MAB Seville Strategy Recommendation 3.2, 3 : Goal 3 is to use biosphere reserves for research, monitoring, education and training

Author Commentary 21

CBD Decision VII/28, 19 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : This is Activity 4.3.5 of the PAs programme of work, under Goal 4.3: To assess and monitor PA status and trends.

Author Commentary 22

CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, Annex I : This is objective 3.5 of the programme of work for marine and coastal biodiversity, including part a, to collaborate with organizations in the preparation of proposals; part b, to develop advice on network design and part c, to assist the exchange of information on research and management issues between MPA managers. Appendix 4, outlining research and monitoring priorities, should be referred to.

Author Commentary 23

CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, Annex I: This is objective 3.4 of the programme of work for marine and coastal biodiversity, including part a, to provide financial and technical support for the establishment of a global system of marine and coastal PA networks; part b, to provide up-to-date information on PAs in collaboration with UNEP-WCMC and part c, to collaborate with regional initiatives to fund monitoring. Part a is a duplication of CBD Decision VII/5, 35.

Author Commentary 24

Ramsar Resolution VIII.10, 39 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 20 2 both ask Contracting Parties to establish monitoring regimes for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, pointing to guidance from the Convention’s Wetlands Risk Assessment Framework, contained in Ramsar Resolution VII.1, Annex and also the New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, which can be found at Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex

Author Commentary 25

Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex, 1.2: This obligation is duplicated in the planning activity of the management section and the develop tools activity of the assessment section.

Author Commentary 26

MAB Recommendations Goal 3 deals with joint activities on research and monitoring under the goals of the Seville Strategy. These activities should be led by scientific boards and planned in joint sessions. Recommendations are for the establishment and functioning of transboundary Biosphere Reserves.

Author Commentary 27

Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008, Operational Objective 12.2 : Action 12.2.1 asks for giving priority to waterbirds, fish and marine turtles, especially those that are globally threatened, actions 12.2.2 and 12.2.3 refer to activities for wetland-dependent migratory species.

Author Commentary 28

CBD Decision VI/22, 28 and CBD Decision VI/22, Annex : objective 1 under goal 4 in programme element 3 of the Annex, which is the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity. Activities within this objective should be referred to for details. Benefit from opportunities offered through the clearing-house mechanism when improving technical capacity. This obligation is duplicated in the develop tools activity of the assessment section.

Author Commentary 29

CBD Decision V/3, 2 and CBD Decision V/3, Annex : response to the second issue in section B of the Annex, which sets out priority areas for action on coral bleaching. Such an approach is needed as coral bleaching is complex. Bear in mind the ecosystem approach and include ecological and societal issues. This obligation is duplicated in the research activity of the assessment section and the planning activity of the management section.

Author Commentary 30

Ramsar Recommendation 5.13 : Only applies to Contracting Parties in the Neotropical region