Activity 1: Conserve and sustainably use inland waters (general obligations on management)

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: Conserve and sustainably use inland waters (general obligations)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 2: Conserve and sustainably use Wetlands of International Importance

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 3: Conserve and sustainably use specific inland water ecosystems (general obligations)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 4: Conserve and sustainably use inland waters for fish and fisheries

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly Relevant Obligations and commitments


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Author Commentary 1

Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008, Operational Objective 3.1
The actions under this Operational Objective for Parties focus on reviewing the Wise Use concept (action 3.1.1), compiling advice and best practice studies for the wise use of wetlands (action 3.12), ensuring that the application of the Convention New guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands (Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex) is applied (action 3.1.3), and disseminating and encouraging the use of the Convention’s guidance on the wise use concept to governments, agencies and donors (action 3.1.4).

Author Commentary 2

Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008, Operational Objective 11.1
Action 11.1.1 refers to the definition of ‘ecological character’ and ‘change in ecological character’ as adopted by Ramsar Resolution VII.10, 11. Action 11.1.2 calls for application of the New guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands (Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex).

Author Commentary 3

Ramsar Resolution IX.1, 7
Ramsar Resolution IX.1, Annex C
The Integrated framework for the Ramsar Convention’s water-related guidance provides background on the links between wetland ecosystems and water resources management; explores how Ramsar's water-related guidance addresses water in the context of the hydrological cycle; illustrates Ramsar's role in integrated water resources management; explains the linkages between the various elements of Ramsar's water-related guidance (scientific tools, policy and institutional aspects, basin planning and management frameworks); and indicates cross-references to other Ramsar guidance related to the conservation and wise use of wetlands.

Author Commentary 4

Ramsar Resolution VIII.3, 14
Specific on wetlands, contributes to CBD Decision VII/15, 12, which refers to ecosystems in general.

Author Commentary 5

Ramsar Resolution VIII.19, 18
Ramsar Resolution VIII.19, Annex
The Guiding principles for taking into account the cultural values of wetlands for the effective management of sites contain a number of principles for identifying, preserving and reinforcing the cultural values of wetlands. They stress the strong link between wetland conservation and benefits to people.

Author Commentary 6

Ramsar Resolution 5.6
The Guidelines for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, as adopted as an Annex to Ramsar Recommendation 4.10, cover the establishment of national wetland policies, priority actions at national level, and priority actions at particular wetland sites. The Guidelines were further elaborated by the Additional Guidance for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, annexed to Ramsar Resolution 5.6. These cover establishment of national wetland policies, knowledge of wetlands and their value, and action at particular wetland sites.

Author Commentary 7

Ramsar Recommendation 4.10
Ramsar Recommendation 4.10, Annex
The Guidelines for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, as adopted as an Annex to Ramsar Recommendation 4.10, cover the establishment of national wetland policies, priority actions at national level, and priority actions at particular wetland sites. The Guidelines were further elaborated by the Additional Guidance for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, annexed to Ramsar Resolution 5.6. These cover establishment of national wetland policies, knowledge of wetlands and their value, and action at particular wetland sites.

Author Comentary 8

Ramsar Recommendation 3.3
Ramsar Recommendation 3.3, Annex
The annex provides definitions of wise use, sustainable utilization, and natural properties of the ecosystem.

Author Commentary 9

Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex
The Framework for Implementing the Convention carries a number of provisions relevant for aspects of wetland management: Provision of measures to mitigate or exclude any adverse effects of wetland transformation, including compensation measures, if transformation of wetlands is planned (national measures number 2.6); monitoring and follow-up of authorized operations affecting wetlands including the adoption and utilization of corrective measures where required (2.7); definition and implementation of measures required to maintain the ecological character of wetlands (3.1); promotion of the sustainable management of wetlands to avoid over-exploitation of wetlands resources, and to provide for a firm social and economic basis for wetland conservation (3.2); effective conservation of listed wetlands, including wardening, development of buffer zones, and other land-use control mechanisms (5.2).

Author Commentary 9a

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and
CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex:
This is priority action 5.2 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 10

WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 96
Authenticity and integrity are defined at WHC Operational Guidelines II.E, 79-95.

Author Commentary 11

WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 99
Boundaries to properties under criteria vii-x (natural World Heritage sites, see WHC Operational Guidelines II.D, 77) should reflect the spatial requirements of habitats, species, processes or phenomena that provide the basis for their inscription on the World Heritage List (WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 101).

Author Commentary 12

WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 103
The buffer zone should include the immediate setting of the nominated property, and areas and attributes that are functionally important as a support to the property (see WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 104).

Author Commentary 13

WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 119
This paragraph notes that for some properties, human use would not be appropriate.

Author Commentary 14

UNCCD Decision 2/COP.6, 5
The relevant policies and programmes include, for example, those on land, water and forest management, agriculture, rural development, early warning systems, environment, energy, natural resources, health and education, as well as poverty eradication and sustainable development strategies.

Author Commentary 15

UNCCD Decision 12/COP.6, 6
The synergies the obligation is referring to are those with other relevant conventions and relevant international organizations, institutions and agencies.

Author Commentary 16

UNFCCC Article 4.1(f)
See also the adaptation section of the Biodiversity and Climate Change module.

Author Commentary 17

UNFCCC Decision 10/CP.1, 4
This can be seen as a specific way of implementing UNFCCC Article 4.1(f). See also the adaptation section of the Biodiversity and Climate Change module.

Author Commentary 18

UNFCCC Decision 28/CP.7, 1
UNFCCC Decision 28/CP.7,Annex
This is the task of the national team that will prepare the National Adaptation Programme of Action (NAPA). Note that one of the criteria is synergy with other multilateral environmental agreements. Criteria for prioritization will be applied, among others, to cultural heritage, biodiversity, land-use management and forestry, and coastal zones and associated loss of land. See also the adaptation section of the Biodiversity and Climate Change module.

Author Commentary 19

Ramsar Resolution VIII.20, 7
Ramsar Resolution VIII.20, 7, Annex
The General guidance for interpreting ‘urgent national interests’ under Article 2.5 of the Convention and considering compensation under Article 4.2 addresses urgent national interests, compensation and procedural matters.

Author Commentary 20

Ramsar Resolution VII.11, 18
The Guidelines for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, as adopted as an Annex to Ramsar Recommendation 4.10, cover the establishment of national wetland policies, priority actions at national level, and priority actions at particular wetland sites. The Guidelines were further elaborated by the Additional Guidance for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, annexed to Ramsar Resolution 5.6. These cover establishment of national wetland policies, knowledge of wetlands and their value, and action at particular wetland sites.

Author Commentary 21

Ramsar Strategic Plan 2003-2008, Operational Objective 3.2
Action 3.2.1 under this Operational Objective requests the implementation of the Guidelines for global action on peatlands (Ramsar Resolution VIII.17, A)

Author Commentary 22

Ramsar Resolution VIII.17, 11
Ramsar Resolution VIII.17, Annex
The Guidelines for Global Action on Peatlands address the following themes: knowledge of global resources; education and public awareness on peatlands; policy and legislative instruments; wise use of peatlands; research networks, regional centres of expertise, and institutional capacity; international cooperation; and implementation and support.

Author Commentary 23

Ramsar Recommendation 6.1, 11
The Guidelines for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, as adopted as an Annex to Ramsar Recommendation 4.10, cover the establishment of national wetland policies, priority actions at national level, and priority actions at particular wetland sites. The Guidelines were further elaborated by the Additional Guidance for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, annexed to Ramsar Resolution 5.6. These cover establishment of national wetland policies, knowledge of wetlands and their value, and action at particular wetland sites.

Author Commentary 23a

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and
CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex:
This is priority action 4.2.3 of the programme of work on island biodiversity. It refers specifically to irrigation and water management as a means to ensure food security.

Author Commentary 23b

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and
CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex:
This is priority action 5.4 of the programme of work on island biodiversity. It refers specifically to water management.

Author Commentary 24

CBD Decision VII/27, 2
CBD Decision VII/27, Annex
Goal 1.1 of the programme of work on mountain biodiversity asks for prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to mountain biodiversity. Goal 1.2 addresses protection, recovering and restoration of mountain biodiversity, goal 1.3 the promotion of sustainable use of mountain biodiversity, and goal 1.5 the maintenance of genetic diversity in mountain ecosystems in particular through the preservation and maintenance of traditional knowledge and practices.

Author Commentary 25

CBD Decision VI/22, 11
CBD Decision VI/22, Annex
Programme element 1 of the expanded programme of work on forest biodiversity comprises a number of objectives relevant for conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity: Objective 2 of goal 2 asks for the mitigation of the impact of pollution such as acidification and eutrophication on forest biodiversity; objective 3 of goal 2 for the mitigation of the negative impacts of climate change on forest biodiversity; objective 4 of goal 2 for the prevention and mitigation of the adverse effects of forest fires and fire suppression; objective 5 of goal 2 for the mitigation of the effects of loss of natural disturbances; and objective 6 of goal 2 for the prevention and mitigation of losses due to fragmentation and conversion to other land uses. Under goal 4 of programme element 1, objective 1 addresses the promotion of sustainable use of forest resources; and objective 2 the prevention of losses caused by unsustainable harvesting of timber and non-timber forest products. Objective 1 of goal 5 of programme element 1 is about promoting the fair and equitable sharing of benefits resulting from the utilization of forest genetic resources and associated traditional knowledge.

Author Commentary 26

CBD Decision V/23, 3
CBD Decision V/23, Annex
Several activities of the programme of work on dry and sub-humid lands are relevant for the conservation and sustainable use of inland water biodiversity. Activity 7d addresses the sustainable management of dry and sub-humid land production systems, activity 7e the appropriate management and sustainable use of water resources, activity 7f the conservation in situ as well as ex situ of dry and sub-humid land biodiversity, activity 7h the sustainable use or husbandry of plant and animal biomass, through adaptive management, in dry and sub-humid lands. Activity 8b aims for the decentralization of management to the lowest level, keeping in mind the need for common resource management and with due consideration to involving indigenous and local communities. Activity 9a asks for the diversification of sources of income to reduce the negative pressures on biodiversity of drylands, and activity 9c for the exploration of innovative sustainable uses of dryland biodiversity for local income generation.

Author Commentary 27

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 31
Reference is made to the 1997 FAO Code of Conduct and its associated Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries - Aquaculture Development (see http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/static?xml=CCRF_prog.xml&dom=org)and the 2000 Bangkok Declaration and Strategy for Aquaculture Development (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA)/FAO)).

Author Commentary 28

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 23
Ramsar Resolution IX.4, Annex
The Issues and recommendations for Contracting Parties concerning the management of sustainable fisheries in Ramsar sites and other wetlands deal with aquaculture, rice cultivation, management of fisheries, management of fisheries resources, sustainable management of wetland ecosystems for fisheries, conflicts and multi-purpose use, increasing awareness of the importance of wetland management for fisheries, enhancing international cooperation, applying existing international agreements, the status of fisheries in Ramsar sites, and coverage of the Ramsar site network for fish.

Author Commentary 29

Ramsar Resolution IX.23, 22
Resolution IX.23 addresses the outbreaks of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI).
CMS Resolution 6.4, 1
CMS Resolution 6.4, Annex
Operational objective 2.3 (mitigation of obstacles to migration) of the Strategic Plan for 2000-2005 requires Parties to endeavour to mitigate obstacles to migration: reviewing the special problems faced by migratory animals, and propose remedial measures.
WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 108
Common elements of an effective management system could include: a shared understanding of the property by all stakeholders; a cycle of planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and feedback; the involvement of stakeholders; the allocation of necessary resources; capacity-building; and an accountable description of how the management system functions (see WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 111).
WHC Decision 29 COM 7B.b, 3
This obligation refers to the serious threat that disasters pose on the conservation of World Heritage.

Author Commentary 30

AEWA Article II
Measures taken under this article apply within the limits of their national jurisdiction. The measures prescribed in article III of AEWA together with specific actions are determined in the action plan provided for in Article IV of AEWA.

Author Commentary 31

This obligation is duplicated in the Management section [Act. 6] of this module, the Legislative Measures & National Policies section of the Sustainable Use module, and the Management section of the IAS module

Author Commentary 32

This obligation is duplicated in the Sustainable Use module [Legislative Measures and National Policies, and Management], the Inland Waters module [Management], the Protected Areas module [Management], the IAS module [Management] and the Climate Change & Biodiversity module [Adaptation].

Author Commentary 33

The fields of cooperation include, but are not limited to irrigation, hydro-power, navigation, flood control, fisheries, timber floating, recreation and tourism.