Activity 2: Monitoring of Marine and Coastal Ecosystems

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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General obligations

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Be informed if the ecological character of any wetland has changed or is likely to change and pass the information on, Ramsar Article 3, 2 :

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component 1: Guidelines (Indicators and Targets)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Promote the use of methods of sampling and analysis through recommendations in the form of technical norms and keep these methods under review, Ramsar Resolution VII.25, 9 + 10
  • Facilitate the monitoring of local ambient noise, the further understanding of potential interference migration, the identification of the source of potentially damaging sounds; the characterisation of sources of anthropogenic noise and sound propagation and the study of potential impact on the marine environment: CMS Resolution 9.19, 5
  • Adopt and apply a monitoring regime, incorporating the Wetland Risk Assessment Framework, Ramsar Resolution X.13, 19 and Ramsar Resolution VII.10, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 1
  • In inventory activities, adopt a standardised protocol for data gathering and handling and low-cost and user-friendly Geographic Information Systems, Ramsar Resolution VII.20, 13
  • Consider using relevant MedWet tools, in particular the methodology and database for collecting, managing and storing inventory data on wetlands, Ramsar Resolution VII.22, 7

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component2: Research Requirements

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!

Sub-component 1: Marine Protected Areas: Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Sub-component 1: Marine Protected Areas: Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Sub-component 2: Data Collection requirements: Directly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!

Sub-component 2: Data Collection requirements: Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Maintain and organize data derived from identification and monitoring activities, CBD Article 7d

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Author Commentary 1

Ramsar Resolution IX.15, 21 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.10, 39 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 20 and Ramsar Resolution VII. 12, 20 all ask Contracting Parties to establish monitoring regimes for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, pointing to guidance from the Convention’s Wetlands Risk Assessment Framework, contained in
Ramsar Resolution VII.10, Annex and also the New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, which can be found at Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex . This requirement was reaffirmed by Ramsar Resolution X.13, 19 .

Author Commentary 2

Ramsar Resolution X.26, 23; Ramsar Resolution VIII.6, 16 ; Ramsar Resolution VII.20, 11 ; Ramsar Resolution V.3 ; Ramsar Recommendation 4.4 ; Ramsar Recommendation 4.6 ; Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex, 1.1 and Ramsar Recommendation 1.5 . The compilation of national wetland inventories should be a high priority and the Framework for Wetland Inventory should be used for the compilation of the inventories. Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-20015, Operational Objective 1.1 is accompanied by Action 1, which outlines the type of information that national wetland inventories should include. World Heritage Convention Article 11, 1 could be complementary to all those Ramsar Resolutions and vice versa.

Author Commentary 3

This is Strategy 2.6 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015 – Ramsar site status, under Goal 2 – Develop and maintain an international network of wetlands. There are three key result areas, to be achieved by 2015:
1. All Parties with Ramsar sites whose ecological character has changed, is changing or is likely to change owing to human-induced actions to have reported this to the Ramsar Secretariat, in line with the requirements of Article 3.2 of the Convention . (National: CPs)
2. For all sites on the Montreux Record that have not been the subject of a Ramsar Advisory Mission (RAM), intended to provide advice on the steps needed to remove those sites from the Record, Parties to request such a Mission. (National: CPs)
3. Implementation of relevant STRP ecological outcome-oriented indicators of effectiveness of the Convention. (Global: STRP; National: CPs)

Author Commentary 4

Author Commentary 5

This is Strategy 1.1 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015– Global Wetland Information, under Goal 1 – Wise Use. There are 2 key result areas to be achieved, by 2015:
1. All Parties to have completed national wetland inventories in line with the Ramsar Framework for Wetland Inventory and as far as possible to have disseminated comprehensive national wetland inventories, including information on wetland importance, potential Ramsar sites, wetlands for restoration, location of under-represented wetland types, and the ecosystem services provided by wetlands. (National: CPs)
2. An easily accessible Web-based metadata base in place, managed by the Secretariat, populated with information on all national wetland inventories, and linked to national and other international relevant databases. (Global: Secretariat)

Ramsar Resolution VIII.6, 16 , Ramsar Resolution VII.20, 11 , Ramsar Recommendation 4.4 , Ramsar Recommendation 4.6 , Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex, 1.1 and Ramsar Recommendation 1.5 build on each other, with the latest version in Ramsar Resolution X.1 being the most comprehensive one. World Heritage Convention Article 11, 1 could be complementary to all those Ramsar Resolutions and vice versa.

Author Commentary 6

This is Operational Objective 3.4, under programme element 3
of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal protected areas. The goal of this programme elements is the establishment and maintenance of marine and coastal protected areas that are effectively managed, ecologically based and contribute to a global network of marine and coastal protected areas, building upon national and regional systems, including a range of levels of protection, where human activities are managed, particularly through national legislation, regional programmes and policies, traditional and cultural practices and international agreements, to maintain the structure and functioning of the full range of marine and coastal ecosystems, in order to provide benefits to both present and future generations.
The activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements, and regional and international organizations, such as the World Conservation Monitoring Centre of the United Nations Environment Programme. The Executive Secretary should facilitate their implementation. Funding agencies should support implementation of the activities.

Author Commentary 7

CBD Decision VII/28, 18 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : Goal 4.3 of the programme of work on protected areas requests assessing and monitoring protected area status and trends, while goal 4.4 aims to ensure that scientific knowledge contributes to the establishment and effectiveness of protected areas and protected area systems.

Author Commentary 8

This obligation is duplicated in the reporting activity of the CEPA section.

Author Commentary 9

This is Strategy 2.6 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015– Ramsar site status , under Goal 2 – Develop and maintain an international network of wetlands. There are three key result areas, to be achieved by 2015:
1. All Parties with Ramsar sites whose ecological character has changed, is changing or is likely to change owing to human-induced actions to have reported this to the Ramsar Secretariat, in line with the requirements of Article 3.2 of the Convention. (National: CPs)
2. For all sites on the Montreux Record that have not been the subject of a Ramsar Advisory Mission (RAM), intended to provide advice on the steps needed to remove those sites from the Record, Parties to request such a Mission. (National: CPs)
3. Implementation of relevant STRP ecological outcome-oriented indicators of effectiveness of the Convention. (Global: STRP; National: CPs)

Author Commentary 10

Including the use of early-warning systems for coral bleaching, and collaborating with the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network