Activity 1: General obligations

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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General obligations

Relevant obligations and commitments

  • Protect and preserve the marine environment, UNCLOS Article 192 SEE COMMENTARY 1
  • Protect marine biodiversity, UNFSA Article 5g
  • Fulfill international obligations concerning the protection and preservation of the marine environment, giving due consideration to the fact that states are liable under international law, UNCLOS Article 235, 1
  • Promote the implementation of chapter 17 of Agenda 21,WSSD Plan of Implementation 29b – SEE COMMENTARY 2
  • Promote the conservation and management of the oceans in accordance with chapter 17 of Agenda 21 and other relevant international instruments, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 53
  • Implement the Ramsar Convention, including its joint work programme with CBD WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32e
  • Address degradation and destruction of key marine and coastal habitats, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I SEE COMMENTARY 3
Component 1: Tools, guidelines, mechanisms for management

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Use impact assessments for the adoption of targets for wetland conservation and management, Ramsar Resolution VIII.9, 19
  • Support the development of Early Warning Systems for detecting change in ecological character: Ramsar Resolution VI.1, 11
  • Ensure that strategic planning in coastal zones as well as environmental impact assessments are carried out competently and in a timely fashion, Ramsar Recommendation 6.8, 10
  • Ensure that any projects, plans, programmes and policies with potentially altering the ecological character of Ramsar sites or other wetlands are subjected to rigorous impact assessment procedures, Ramsar Resolution VII. 16, 10 : - SEE COMMENTARY 4
  • Ensure that all foreign investment activities relating to wetlands are subject to impact assessments, Ramsar Resolution VII. 19, 10 vi
  • Apply, for assessing the impacts of extractive use, the SEA guidance on Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessment: updated scientific and technical guidance, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 14 and Ramsar Resolution X.17, Annex
  • Develop regional guidelines for States to use in establishing sanctions for non-compliance by vessels flying their flag and by their nationals that are adequate in severity for effectively securing compliance, as well as in evaluating national systems of sanctions, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 97
  • Develop management tools, including closed areas, marine protected areas and marine reserves and criteria for their implementation, to effectively manage straddling, high seas migratory and discrete stocks and protect habitats, marine biodiversity and vulnerable marine ecosystems, including on the basis of the precautionary approach, UNFSA RC, Annex, Article 18e
  • Use the existing guidance for allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands, CBD Decision IX/19, 2 SEE COMMENTARY 5
  • Make use of the guidance on “Framework for processes of detecting, reporting and responding to change in wetland ecological character”, Ramsar Resolution X.16, 4 and Ramsar Resolution X.16, Annex
  • Make use of the “Consolidated Guidance for integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management”, Ramsar Resolution X.19, 5 and Ramsar Resolution X.19, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 6
  • Utilize the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment response options, Ramsar Resolution X.18, 13 and 14 SEE COMMENTARY 7
  • Develop pilot projects to promote the Guidelines for integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management: Ramsar Resolution VII.18, 20 and Ramsar Resolution VII.18, Annex -SEE COMMENTARY 8
  • Fully apply the Ramsar Wise Use Guidelines in relation to national policies for wetland conservation, Ramsar Recommendation 6.1, 11 - SEE COMMENTARY 9
  • Develop and use diverse approaches and tools, including proper coastal and land use and watershed planning, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32c
  • and facilitate the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, the elimination of destructive fishing practices, the establishment of marine protected areas consistent with international law and based on scientific information, including representative networks by 2012 and time/area closures for the protection of nursery grounds and periods, proper coastal, and land use and watershed planning, and the integration of marine and coastal areas management into key sectors; UNGA Resolution 57/141, 53
  • Develop and use diverse approaches and tools, including the integration of marine and coastal areas management into key sectors, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32c
  • Promote the application of appropriate tools and policy measures including integrated spatial planning in order to better integrate protected areas into broader land and seascapes and relevant sectors and plans, including aiming at poverty eradication, CBD Decision IX/18, A, 4a
  • Design adaptive integrated marine and coastal area management programmes that respond to environmental change, CBD Decision VIII/22, 6b SEE COMMENTARY 10
  • Continue efforts to implement provisions related to the Guidelines for the use of groundwater: Ramsar Resolution VIII.40, 15
  • Adopt and apply strategic planning and integrated coastal zone management principles: Ramsar Recommendation 6.8, 9
  • Use the “Framework for Ramsar data and information needs”, Ramsar Resolution X.14, 5 and Ramsar Resolution X.14, Annex SEE COMMENTARY 11
  • Apply the guidance from the Explanatory Note and Guidelines for completing the Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands (RIS), when compiling a RIS, Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 16 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, Annex II - SEE COMMENTARY 12
  • Apply the Guidelines for the allocation and management of water for wetlands: Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 14 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 13
  • Utilize the additional guidance on tools for the allocation and management of water for wetlands: Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 15 -SEE COMMENTARY 14
  • Promote successful implementation of the wise use concept by ensuring that national policies and wetland management plans are based on the best available scientific knowledge, including technical and traditional knowledge, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 15

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Ecosystem Approach / precautionary principle

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Promote ecosystem approaches to the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources, including the identification of key variables or interactions, for the purpose of assessing and monitoring, first, components of biological diversity; second, the sustainable use of such components; and, third, ecosystem effects, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) SEE COMMENTARY 20
  • Encourage the application by 2010 of the ecosystem approach to ocean management, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 30d
  • Develop and use diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32c
  • Develop and facilitate the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the ecosystem approach, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 53
  • Apply the precautionary approach and an ecosystem approach in adopting and implementing conservation and management measures, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 9 – SEE COMMENTARY 21
  • Consider the agreed consensual elements relating to ecosystem approaches and oceans, UNGA Resolution 61/222, 119 – SEE COMMENTARY 22
  • Do not use the absence of adequate scientific information as a reason for postponing or failing to take conservation and management measures, UNFSA Article 6.2
  • Give consideration to the challenge of incorporating land and marine issues, in the application of the ecosystem approach, CBD Decision IX/7, 2d SEE COMMENTARY 23

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 2: Develop National Strategies

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Integrate into the National Wetland Policies the guidance and guidelines adopted under the Convention, Ramsar Resolution VII.6, 12 - SEE COMMENTARY 26
  • Develop national, regional and international programmes for halting the loss of marine biodiversity, in particular fragile ecosystems, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 51 and WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32d
  • Implement the CBD programme of work on marine and coastal biodiversity, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32b
  • Implement policies, legislation, and practices, including coastal and marine resource management plans, to ensure the application of the Ramsar wise use provisions, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) SEE COMMENTARY 27
  • Develop, adopt and use the necessary and appropriate instruments and measures to achieve wise use of wetland, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) SEE COMMENTARY 28
  • Develop appropriate management and achieve wise use for those internationally important wetlands that have not yet been formally designated as Ramsar sites but have been identified through domestic application of the Strategic Framework or an equivalent process, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) SEE COMMENTARY 29
  • Ensure that coastal wetlands and their values for human well-being are recognized in planning and decision-making: Ramsar Resolution VIII.4, 14
  • Promote the conservation and integrated management of mangrove ecosystems within the context of national policies and regulatory frameworks, Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 13
  • Maintain or reinstate aquatic biota migration pathways, reduce the impacts of point source and diffuse pollution in all its forms, establish environmental flow allocations supporting the conservation of aquatic biota, protect critical spawning and nursery grounds, and restore degraded habitats: Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 30 - SEE COMMENTARY 30
  • Recognise the benefits of incorporating into National Wetland Policies measures to ensure that wetland restoration is given priority consideration, Ramsar Resolution VII.6, 11 - SEE COMMENTARY 31
  • Integrate wetland restoration into national conservation, land and water management policies, Ramsar Recommendation 6.15, 8
  • Integrate the Principles and guidelines for wetland restoration into National Wetland Policies and plans, Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, 11 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 32 and SEE COMMENTARY 33
  • Make every effort, when implementing the UNFCCC and, as appropriate, its Kyoto Protocol, to consider the maintenance of the ecological character of wetlands in national climate change mitigation and adaptation policies, , Ramsar Resolution X.24, 37
  • Integrate the issue of marine debris into national strategies dealing with waste management in the coastal zone, ports and maritime industries, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 107
  • Develop national policies, strategies or programmes for ballast water management, BWM Article 4, 2 - SEE COMMENTARY 34
  • Develop and implement national or regional plans of action, to put into effect the international plans of action of the FAO, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 31d and UNGA Resolution 63/112, 40 – SEE COMMENTARY 35
  • Adopt the use of relevant methods and techniques for avoiding the adverse effects of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity, and incorporate them into national biodiversity strategies and action plans, CBD Decision VII/5, 44 and 45SEE COMMENTARY 36
  • Facilitate effective implementation of Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management by developing and adopting a national strategy, CBD Decision VIII/22, 3c SEE COMMENTARY 37
  • Adopt a wider marine and coastal management framework, taking into account CBD Decision VII/5, appendix 3 to annex I , CBD Decision VII/5, 20 SEE COMMENTARY 38
  • Develop integrated plans for coastal zone management, water resources and agriculture, UNFCCC Article 4, 1e and KP Article 11.2
  • Mainstream sustainable coral reef management and integrated watershed management into national development strategies, UNGA Resolution 61/222, 106
  • Build on existing knowledge of biodiversity and poverty alleviation mainstreaming to integrate biodiversity into national development policies and plans, CBD Decision IX/11, A, 10 SEE COMMENTARY 39
  • Make the interrelationship between wetland ecosystems and human health a key component of national and international policies, plans and strategies, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 24 – SEE COMMENTARY 40
  • Give priority to conservation and wise use of water and wetlands in national poverty reduction strategy papers, integrated water resource management and water efficiency plans and similar policies, Ramsar Resolution IX.14, 8
  • Identify ways and means of further implementing the framework for action on wetlands and poverty reduction adopted in Resolution IX.14 , Ramsar Resolution X.28, 8
  • Make full use of the framework, experiences and findings of the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment when reviewing, revising and implementing national biodiversity strategies and action plans, relevant development plans, and development cooperation strategies, CBD Decision IX/16, 4
  • Implement strategies and programmes for an integrated ecosystem-based approach to ocean management, developed by the CBD, the FAO and other relevant global and regional organizations; UNGA Resolution 59/24, 66
  • Ensure that the allocation and management of water for wetlands is addressed in the design and implementation of water management projects: Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 23

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Sectoral integration

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Promote integrated, multidisciplinary and multisectoral coastal and ocean management, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 30e
  • Promote the integration of cetacean conservation into all relevant sectors by coordinating national positions among various conventions, agreements and other international fora, CMS Resolution 8.22, 1 SEE COMMENTARY 48
  • Encourage and support multidisciplinary approaches to action relating to coral-reef research and monitoring in relation to coral bleaching, CBD Decision V/3, 6,b SEE COMMENTARY 49

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 3: Institutional Requirements

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Facilitate effective implementation of Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management by considering the development of institutional structures, CBD Decision VIII/22, 3b SEE COMMENTARY 51
  • Facilitate effective implementation of Integrated Marine and Coastal Area Management by considering appropriate institutional mechanisms to support the provisions of relevant international and regional instruments, CBD Decision VIII/22, 3e SEE COMMENTARY 52
  • Establish and/or strengthen, institutional, administrative, and legislative arrangements for the development of integrated management of marine and coastal ecosystems, plans and strategies for marine and coastal areas, CBD Decision II/10, 3
  • Implement the CBD programme of work on marine and coastal biodiversity, including through the development of human and institutional capacity, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32b
  • Develop institutions to ensure the application of the Ramsar wise use provisions, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 53
  • Establish National Ramsar/Wetland Committees, Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 17 - SEE COMMENTARY 54
  • Require development agencies to adhere to the strategy recommended in this recommendation aiming at enhancing the capacity of wetlands to contribute to the well-being of the people, Ramsar Recommendation 3.4 - SEE COMMENTARY 55
  • Promote human and institutional capacity-building, in order to implement the Global Programme of Action, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 33a
  • Strengthen relevant organizations to build capacity in marine science and the sustainable management of oceans and their resources, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 36d
  • Promote the establishment, particularly in developing coastal States, of national marine scientific and technological research centres and the strengthening of existing national centres, UNCLOS Article 275,1

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments


Restrict again!

Author Commentary 1

The sovereign right of States to exploit their natural resources is subject to their duty to protect and preserve the marine environment (UNCLOS Article 193 ).

Author Commentary 2

Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 provides the programme of action for achieving the sustainable development of oceans, coastal areas and seas through its programme areas of integrated management and sustainable development of coastal areas, including exclusive economic zones; marine environmental protection; sustainable use and conservation of marine living resources; addressing critical uncertainties for the management of the marine environment and climate change; strengthening international, including regional, cooperation and coordination; and sustainable development of small islands

Author Commentary 3

This is Operational Objective 2.3 , under programme element 2 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal living resources. The goal of this programme elements is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources
Suggested activities
(a) Activities on coral bleaching and physical degradation and destruction of coral reefs as adopted in decision VI/3 and as amended in decision VII/5 are contained in CBD Decision VII/5, appendices 1 and 2 to ANNEX I .
Other activities relevant to non-coral ecosystems will be developed by Parties and, where appropriate, by regional organizations.
Ways and means
The Executive Secretary should facilitate implementation, through active collaboration with International Coral Reef Initiative and its partners, the regional seas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and other relevant organizations. The other activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements and regional and international organizations.

Author Commentary 4

A number of Ramsar Guidelines provide guidance on the application of Environmental Impact Assessment and Strategic Environmental Assessments. This are referred to under Activity 1 of Section 1. Ramsar Resolution VII. 16, 10 repeats and specifies the contents of Ramsar Recommendation 1.6 .

Author Commentary 5

Including, inter alia, resolutions IX.1 annex C (“An integrated framework for the Ramsar Convention’s water-related guidance”) and VII.19 (“Guidelines for international cooperation under the Ramsar Convention”) of the Ramsar Convention

Author Commentary 6

Consolidated Guidance for integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management, Ramsar Resolution X.19, Annex , includes several provisions directly relevant to marine and coastal biodiversity

Author Commentary 7

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment response options relevant to the implementation of the Ramsar Convention at the national level, will be provided in the forthcoming Ramsar Technical Report.

Author Commentary 8

Ramsar Resolution VII.18, 11 , Ramsar Resolution VII.18, 12 , Ramsar Resolution VII.18, 13 , Ramsar Resolution VII.18, 20 and Ramsar Resolution VII.18, Annex : The Guidelines for integrating wetland conservation and wise use into river basin management address institutional frameworks, assessment and enhancement of the role of wetlands in water management, minimising the impacts of land use and development projects on wetlands and their biodiversity, maintenance of natural water regimes to maintain wetlands, and international cooperation.

Author Commentary 9

Ramsar Recommendation 6.1, 11 : The Guidelines for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, as adopted as an Annex to Ramsar Recommendation 4.10 , cover the establishment of national wetland policies, priority actions at national level, and priority actions at particular wetland sites. The Guidelines were further elaborated by the Additional Guidance for the Implementation of the Wise Use Concept, annexed to Ramsar Resolution 5.6 . These cover establishment of national wetland policies, knowledge of wetlands and their value, and action at particular wetland sites.

Author Commentary 10

The development of IMCAM included in the CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD VII/5, Annex I, Programme element 1

Author Commentary 11

The Framework for Ramsar data and information needs was developed to facilitate access to sound, relevant data and information, including good practice advice, in support of good Resolution-making and implementation of commitments made by Ramsar Contracting Parties to secure the wise use of wetlands and the maintenance of their ecological character. Such relevant data and information is needed, not only about wetlands themselves but also about the drivers of change. In order to support clearly the implementation of the Convention through its Strategic Plan and identified priorities, the Framework is structured in line with the Goals and Strategies of the Convention’s Strategic Plan 2009-2015 ( Resolution X.1 ).

Author Commentary 12

Ramsar Resolution IX.1, 6 , Ramsar Resolution IX.15, 28 , Ramsar Article 2.5 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.10, 31 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 10 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 16 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 17 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 5 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 6 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 7 , Ramsar Resolution 5.3 , Ramsar Resolution 4.5 and Ramsar Recommendation 4.7 are all about the procedure of designating new Ramsar sites or informing the Ramsar Bureau about changes to existing sites. This should happen through using the Ramsar Information Sheet (RIS), for which Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, Annex I in combination with Ramsar Resolution IX.1, Annex B provide a revised format. Resolution VIII.13, 16 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 17 recommend to use the guidance from the Explanatory Note and Guidelines for completing the Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands, contained in Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, Annex II . These provisions supersede all the earlier guidance from Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 5 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 6 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 7 , Ramsar Resolution 5.3 , Ramsar Resolution 4.5 and Ramsar Recommendation 4.7 .

Author Commentary 13

Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 14 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, Annex : The Guidelines for allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands contain principles, operationalizing the principles, the Resolution-making framework, the process for determining water allocations, scientific tools and methods, and implementation.

Author Commentary 14

Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 15 : This guidance is available in document Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 15 Ramsar COP8 DOC.9; see http://www.ramsar.org/cop8/cop8_doc_09_e.htm

Author Commentary 15

This is STRATEGY 1.6 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Science-based management of wetlands, under Goal 1 – Wise Use. The key first result area is to ensure that, by 2015, high quality research is completed, widely disseminated in appropriate formats and styles and applied concerning areas of key importance for wetland sustainability, such as agriculture-wetland interactions, climate change, and valuation of ecosystem services. The second result is is to ensure that all wetland management plans founded on sound scientific research, including research on potential threats.

Author Commentary 16

This resolution urges the Parties to CITES to make use of the guidelines on sustainable use developed within under the framework of the CBD.

Author Commentary 17

This is target 2.8 in the Strategic Plan 2006-2011, under objective 2: To ensure that migratory species benefit from the best possible conservation measures.

Author Commentary 18

This is target 2.8 in the Strategic Plan 2006-2011, under objective 2: To ensure that migratory species benefit from the best possible conservation measures.

Author Commentary 19

Ramsar Resolution VIII.9, 10 and CMS Resolution 7.2, 3 endorse CBD Decision VI/7, A2 (part 1), to which the CBD Guidelines for incorporating biodiversity-related issues into environmental impact assessment legislation and/or process and in strategic environmental assessment are annexed.

Author Commentary 20

This is Operational Objective 2.1 , under programme element 2 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal living resources. The goal of this programme elements is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources
Suggested activities
(a) To develop collaborative links with relevant organizations and institutions, including in regards to cooperative activities aimed at protecting biodiversity in marine areas beyond national jurisdiction.
(b) To promote the exchange of information and experience using appropriate mechanisms.
(c) To promote the identification and development of ecosystem approaches compatible with the sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources.
(d) To promote the identification both of components of the ecosystems which are critical to the functioning of the ecosystem and of key threats.
(e) To promote capacity-building at local, national and regional levels, including local and traditional knowledge.
(f) To carry out a study on the effects of fish and invertebrate stock enhancement on marine and coastal biological diversity at the species and genetic levels.
(g) To implement the 1995 Code of Conduct for Responsible Fisheries taking note of the relevant FAO international plans of action and technical guidelines.
(h) To eliminate destructive fishing practices, and restore and maintain fisheries stocks to sustainable levels by the year 2015, including through financial assistance to developing countries, in particular small island developing States, for improved enforcement, surveillance and patrolling and recognizing the importance of use of sustainable fishing practices, including traditional fishing practices.
(i) To maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable marine and coastal areas, including areas within and beyond national jurisdiction.
(j) To promote, in collaboration with the Global Taxonomy Initiative, the strengthening of taxonomic expertise at regional and national levels.
Ways and means
The activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements where appropriate, and regional and international organizations. The Executive Secretary will assist Parties in implementation, and should carry out activity (f).

Author Commentary 21

FAO Guidelines for the implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to fisheries are available on its website.

Author Commentary 22

Link to the agreed elements

Author Commentary 23

In accordance with national policies, laws and guidelines and while taking note of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Author Commentary 24

CBD Decision V/6, 2 ,CBD Decision V/6, Annex contains a description and the 12 principles of as well as five points of operational guidance on the ecosystem approach. CBD Decision VII/11, Annex contains suggested annotations to the rationale of and implementation guidelines for the ecosystem approach.

Author Commentary 25

The synergies the obligation is referring to are those with other relevant conventions and relevant international organizations, institutions and agencies.

Author Commentary 26

Ramsar Resolution VII.6, 12 repeats Ramsar Resolution VII.7, 9 . All the guidelines of the Convention can be found at http://www.ramsar.org/key_guidelines_index.htm.

Author Commentary 27

This is STRATEGY 1.3 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Policy , legislation and institutions, under Goal 1 – Wise Use . The first key result area is to ensure that, by 2015, National Wetland Policy or equivalent instruments are fully in place alongside and integrated with other strategic and planning processes, including poverty eradication strategies, water resources management and water efficiency plans, coastal and marine resource management plans, national forest programmes, national strategies for sustainable development, and national policies or measures on agriculture. The second key result area is to have Strategic Environmental Assessment in place for policies, programmes and plans impacting on wetlands.

Author Commentary 28

This is Goal 1 – Wise Use of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 . The strategies developed under goal one of the Strategic Plan should apply this approach

Author Commentary 29

This is STRATEGY 2.7 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Management of other internationally important wetlands, under Goal 2 – Develop and maintains an international network of wetlands. The key result area, to be achieved by 2015, is to ensure the application of Ramsar guidance on the maintenance of ecological character, with a priority upon recognized internationally important wetlands not yet designated as Ramsar sites. (National: CPs; Subnational: wetland managers)

Author Commentary 30

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 30 : The paragraph asks to take into account the Guidelines for allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands (Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, Annex ), the Principles and guidelines for incorporating wetland issues into Integrated Coastal Zone Management (Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, Annex ), and the guidance contained in Ramsar Resolution VIII.32 on mangrove ecosystems

Author Commentary 31

Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, 11 makes Ramsar Resolution VII.6, 11 more specific by referring to the Principles and guidelines for wetland restoration ( Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, Annex ).

Author Commentary 32

Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, 11 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, Annex : The Principles and guidelines for wetland restoration use flowcharts to explain the guidelines for wetland restoration and the process for identification of potential wetland restoration projects.

Author Commentary 33

Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, 11 makes Ramsar Resolution VII.6, 11 more specific by referring to the Principles and guidelines for wetland restoration ( Ramsar Resolution VIII.16, Annex ).

Author Commentary 34

Overlap in the recommendation for Parties to develop various standards and other forms of guidance on ballast water management

Author Commentary 35

FAO developed four different plans of action to promote sustainable fisheries, respectively on Sharks, IUU fishing, Bycatch and Fishing Capacity. These plans can be found on the FAO website, http://www.fao.org/fishery/ccrf/2,3//en

Author Commentary 36

Specific measures refered to under CBD Decision VII/5, 45:
(a) The application of environmental impact assessments, or similar assessment and monitoring procedures, for mariculture developments, with due consideration paid to the scale and nature of the operation, as well as carrying capacities of the environment, taking into account the guidelines on the integration of biodiversity considerations in environmental impact assessment legislation and/or processes and in strategic impact assessment, endorsed by the Conference of the Parties in its decision VI/7 A , as well as the recommendations endorsed in decision VI/10, annex II , on the conduct of cultural, environmental and social impact assessments regarding developments proposed to take place on, or which are likely to impact on, sacred sites and on lands and waters traditionally occupied or used by indigenous and local communities. There is a need to address the likely immediate, intermediate and long-term impacts on all levels of biodiversity;
(b) Development of effective site-selection methods, in the framework of integrated marine and coastal area management, taking into account the special needs and difficulties encountered by stakeholders in developing countries;
(c) Development of effective methods for effluent and waste control;
(d) Development of appropriate genetic resource management plans at the hatchery level and in the breeding areas, including cryopreservation techniques, aimed at biodiversity conservation;
(e) Development of controlled low-cost hatchery and genetically sound reproduction methods, made available for widespread use, in order to avoid seed collection from nature, where appropriate. In cases where seed collection from nature cannot be avoided, environmentally sound practices for spat collecting operations should be employed;
(f) Use of selective fishing gear in order to avoid or minimize by-catch in cases where seed are collected from nature;
(g) Use of native species and subspecies in mariculture;
(h) Implementation of effective measures to prevent the inadvertent release of mariculture species and fertile polyploids, including, in the framework of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, living modified organisms (LMOs);
(i) Use of proper methods of breeding and proper places of releasing in order to protect genetic diversity;
(j) Minimizing the use of antibiotics through better husbandry techniques;
(k) Ensuring that fish stocks used for fish meal and fish oil are managed in such a way as to be sustainable and to maintain the trophic web;
(l) Use of selective methods in industrial fisheries to avoid or minimize by-catch;
(m) Considering traditional knowledge, where applicable as a source to develop sustainable mariculture techniques;

Author Commentary 37

The development of IMCAM included in the CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD VII/5, Annex I, Programme element 1

Author Commentary 38

Under CBD Decision VII/5, 21 and 22 Parties agreed that an effective marine and coastal biodiversity management framework as set out in appendix 3 to annex I to the present decision would comprise sustainable management practices and actions to protect biodiversity over the wider marine and coastal environment, including integrated networks of marine and coastal protected areas consisting of,
(a) Marine and coastal protected areas, where threats are managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation and/or sustainable use and where extractive uses may be allowed; and
(b) Representative marine and coastal protected areas where extractive uses are excluded, and other significant human pressures are removed or minimized, to enable the integrity, structure and functioning of ecosystems to be maintained or recovered;
And Parties agreed that the balance between categories (a) and (b) marine and coastal protected areas, in paragraph 21 above would be selected by the country concerned;

Author Commentary 39

For example, those that have been developed through the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the UN Poverty and Environment Initiative

Author Commentary 40

Including by definition of specific wetland targets and indicators that link sustainable wetland management to the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD, Johannesburg, 2002) targets for water, energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity (“WEHAB”) and to the international development goals in the UN Millennium Declaration, including the goals related to reducing poverty and hunger, reducing child mortality, improving maternal health and combating HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases;

Author Commentary 41

Taking into account the guidance put forward in CBD Decision IX/8, 8

Author Commentary 42

CBD Decision VII/30, 15 basically repeats CBD Decision III/9, 5 on national targets for biodiversity conservation although additionally asking for incorporation of the targets into plans and programmes.

Author Commentary 43

The Global Strategy on Plant Conservation can be found in document CBD Decision VI/9, Annex

Author Commentary 44

CMS Resolution 8.18, 1 asks specifically for integration of migratory species into the NBSAPs, developed under the CBD, while CMS Resolution 7.10 and the almost identical CMS Resolution 6.4, Annex ( operational objective 2.2 ) ask more generally for integration of migratory species into relevant plans and policies.

Author Commentary 45

CMS Resolution 8.18, 2 : The indicative list of actions is included in Annex I to this resolution and the indicative list of categories of information in Annex II . This obligation specifies CMS Resolution 8.18, 1 . The 2010 biodiversity target is part of the CBD Strategic Plan, adopted through CBD Decision VI/26, 2 and CBD Decision VI/26, Annex .

Author Commentary 46

This is target 2.9 in the Strategic Plan 2006-2011, under objective 2: To ensure that migratory species benefit from the best possible conservation measures.

Author Commentary 47

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex: This is priority action 8.1 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 48

This Resolution is subject to a revised programme of implementation, as reflected in Resolution 9.9, Annex 1

Author Commentary 49

Including the use of early-warning systems for coral bleaching, and collaborating with the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network

Author Commentary 50

4 CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : The programme of work on protected areas carries a range of provisions relevant for establishing and managing inland water protected areas. Goal 1.1 asks for establishing and strengthening of national and regional protected area systems integrated into a global network; goal 1.2 for the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors; goal 1.4 for a substantially improvement of site-based protected area planning and management; and goal 1.5 for the prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas. Goal 2.1 aims for the promotion of equity and benefit-sharing; goal 4.1 for developing and adopting of minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems. Goal 4.2 addresses the evaluation and improvement of the effectiveness of protected areas management.

Author Commentary 51

The development of IMCAM included in the CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD VII/5, Annex I, Programme element 1

Author Commentary 52

The development of IMCAM included in the CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD VII/5, Annex I, Programme element 1

Author Commentary 53

This is STRATEGY 1.3 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Policy, legislation and institutions, under Goal 1 – Wise Use . The first key result area is to ensure that, by 2015, National Wetland Policy or equivalent instruments are fully in place alongside and integrated with other strategic and planning processes, including poverty eradication strategies, water resources management and water efficiency plans, coastal and marine resource management plans, national forest programmes, national strategies for sustainable development, and national policies or measures on agriculture. The second key result area is to have Strategic Environmental Assessment in place for policies, programmes and plans impacting on wetlands.

Author Commentary 54

Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 17, Ramsar Resolution VIII.26, 21 , Ramsar Resolution VII/8, 16 , Ramsar Resolution VII/27, 15 , Ramsar Recommendation 6.3, 12 and Ramsar Recommendation 5.7 on establishment of National Ramsar/Wetland Committees and participation of representatives from both governmental and non-governmental organisations all compliment each other, with some being almost identical.

Author Commentary 55

Ramsar Recommendation 3.4: The strategy referred to in the obligation consists of a range of requirements for development agencies, many of which are listed here under this activity, component 3.

Author Commentary 56

CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : Goal 3.1 of the programme of work on protected areas asks for the provision of an enabling policy, institutional and socio-economic environment for protected areas.

Author Commentary 57

The capacity gaps include, inter alia, phytosanitary and quarantine control early detection and rapid response systems; incident lists on introductions of alien species, especially in relation to their further spread and impacts on biodiversity and human welfare; adequate field equipment; intersectoral planning; economic valuation; and integrated policy and legal frameworks

Author Commentary 58

Article 5 provides guidelines for implementing Article 4, which asks parties to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit to future generations cultural and natural heritage situated on your territory, with any international assistance and co-operation you may be able to obtain.