Activity 2: Support management

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: Develop Management Capacity

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Promote human and institutional capacity-building, in order to implement the Global Programme of Action, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 33a
  • Implement the CBD programme of work on marine and coastal biodiversity, including through the development of human and institutional capacity, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32b
  • Support capacity-building measures in relation to coral bleaching, including training of and career opportunities for marine taxonomists, ecologists and members of other relevant disciplines, particularly at the national level, CBD Decision V/3, 6, e
  • Build capacity for the implementation of the CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I SEE COMMENTARY 1
  • Build capacity in marine science, information and management, through, inter alia, promoting the use of EIA, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 36c
  • capacity on the implementation of improved waste management practices, noting the particular vulnerability of small island developing States to the impact of marine pollution from land-based sources and marine debris UNGA Resolution 63/111, 16
  • Improve capacity-building for coastal managers and coastguards on integrated marine and coastal area management activities through regular training programmes and educational curricula in marine sciences and policy, CBD Decision VIII/22, 4, f SEE COMMENTARY 2
  • Build capacity to mitigate effects of degradation and destruction of key marine and coastal habitats, including mangrove ecosystems, tropical and cold-water coral-reef ecosystems, seamount ecosystems and seagrass ecosystems, including through identification and promotion of management practices, methodologies and policies to reduce and mitigate impacts upon marine and coastal biological diversity and to restore mangrove forests and rehabilitate damaged coral reef, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) SEE COMMENTARY 3
  • Build capacity to address how climate change affects the risks associated with the introduction, establishment, spread and impacts of invasive alien species; CBD Decision IX/4, B, 11 SEE COMMENTARY 4
  • Give priority to training and capacity-building regarding the implementation of integrated management approaches, Ramsar Resolution IX.20, 12 - SEE COMMENTARY 5
  • Apply appropriate policy instruments and strategies, including building of capacity, for the effective implementation of IMCAM, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 6
  • Develop capacity for the identification of new and dangerous alien species and the promotion of legislation and management, Ramsar Resolution VII.14, 18e

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 2: Research

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Increase reliance on scientific advice in developing, adopting and implementing conservation and management measures, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 7
  • Increase efforts to promote science for conservation and management measures that apply the precautionary approach and an ecosystem approach to fisheries management, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 7– SEE COMMENTARY 11
  • Improve scientific understanding and assessment of marine and coastal ecosystems as a fundamental basis for sound decision-making, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 36
  • Utilize the Millenium Ecosystem Assessment response options, Ramsar Resolution X.18, 13 and 14 SEE COMMENTARY 12
  • Refrain from scientific whaling in the Southern Ocean Sanctuary, IWC Resolution 2000:4
  • Explore the development of a uniform DNA-based identification system for parts and derivatives and aquaculture stocks of Acipenseriformes species and the development of methods for differentiating wild from aquaculture origin caviar, CITES Resolution 12.7 (Rev. COP 14)
  • Encourage and support multidisciplinary approaches to action relating to coral-reef research and monitoring in relation to coral bleaching, CBD Decision V/3, 6,b SEE COMMENTARY 13
  • Implement and coordinate targeted research programmes, including predictive modeling, in the context of the ongoing activities referred to in Decision V/3, 4 on Coral Bleaching, CBD Decision V/3, 6, f
  • Encourage scientific research in the protection, conservation and presentation of cultural and natural heritage, WHC Article 5, e - SEE COMMENTARY 14
  • Promote marine scientific research in the Area through international programmes and cooperation, capacity building and the disseminating results of research, UNCLOS Article 143, 3
  • Promote and facilitate the development and conduct of marine scientific research in accordance with the UNCLOS Convention, UNCLOS Article 239SEE COMMENTARY 15
  • Conduct marine scientific research in compliance with all relevant regulations adopted in conformity with the UNCLOS Convention, including those for the protection and preservation of the marine environment, UNCLOS Article 240d SEE COMMENTARY 16
  • Promote the development of appropriate marine technology, UNCLOS Article 268b
  • Pursue urgently further research on ocean acidification, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 99 – SEE COMMENTARY 17
  • Increase marine scientific research activities, in order to improve understanding and knowledge of the oceans and the deep sea, including, in particular, the extent and vulnerability of deep sea biodiversity and ecosystems, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 142
  • Promote and conduct scientific research and develop appropriate technologies in support of fishery conservation and management, UNFSA Article 5k
  • Increase scientific research on the marine ecosystem, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 100
  • Undertake further research to improve understanding of marine biodiversity, especially in selected seabed habitats and marine areas in need of protection, CBD Decision IX/20, 23 SEE COMMENTARY 18
  • Facilitate research and monitoring activities that reflect identified global knowledge gaps and priority information needs of management of marine and coastal protected areas., CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 19
  • Promote and facilitate scientific and technical research on Ballast Water Management, BWM Article 6.1a
  • Encourage research on wetlands, Ramsar Article 4, 3
  • Encourage research regarding the links between wetlands and human health, in order to inform decision making, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 25
  • Undertake studies of the role of wetlands in carbon storage and sequestration, in adaptation to climate change, including for flood mitigation and water supply, and in mitigating the impacts of sea level rise, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 42
  • Undertake an investigation of potential adaptive strategies for Arctic wetlands, seeking cooperation with the Arctic Council, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 43
  • Encourage the study of traditional systems of water management, Ramsar Resolution VI.23, 7b
  • Establish multi-hazard analyses that define areas suitable for development and contingency planning that recognizes pre-disaster measures: Ramsar Resolution IX.9, 17
  • Undertake research to investigate the decline in numbers of waders in the Western Hemisphere, Ramsar Recommendation 3.2
  • Pursue research on waders in West Africa and at inland sites, Ramsar Recommendation 3.2
  • Undertake studies of the effects of climate change on invasive species in wetlands, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 43
  • Carry out scientific and technical research and monitoring of ballast water, BWM Article 6

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Promote research contributing to conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, CBD Article 12b
  • Promote and cooperate in the use of scientific advances in biodiversity research, CBD Article 12c
  • Enhance research on the role that protected areas and the connectivity of networks of protected areas play in addressing climate change, CBD Decision IX/18, A, 23
  • Promote research on migratory species: CMS Article II, 3a
  • Develop scientific and technical research and work out operating methods to counteract dangers threatening cultural or natural heritage, WHC Article 5, c - SEE COMMENTARY 20

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Author Commentary 1

This is Operational Objective 2.3 , under programme element 2 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal living resources. The goal of this programme elements is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources
Suggested activities
(a) Activities on coral bleaching and physical degradation and destruction of coral reefs as adopted in decision VI/3 and as amended in decision VII/5 are contained in CBD Decision VII/5, appendices 1 and 2 to ANNEX I .
Other activities relevant to non-coral ecosystems will be developed by Parties and, where appropriate, by regional organizations.
Ways and means
(b) The Executive Secretary should facilitate implementation, through active collaboration with International Coral Reef Initiative and its partners, the regional seas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and other relevant organizations. The other activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements and regional and international organizations.

Author Commentary 2

The development of IMCAM is included in the CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD VII/5, Annex I, Programme element 1

Author Commentary 3

This is Operational Objective 2.3 , under programme element 2 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal living resources. The goal of this programme elements is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources
Suggested activities
(a) Activities on coral bleaching and physical degradation and destruction of coral reefs as adopted in decision VI/3 and as amended in decision VII/5 are contained in CBD Decision VII/5, appendices 1 and 2 to ANNEX I .
Other activities relevant to non-coral ecosystems will be developed by Parties and, where appropriate, by regional organizations.
Ways and means
(c) The Executive Secretary should facilitate implementation, through active collaboration with International Coral Reef Initiative and its partners, the regional seas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and other relevant organizations. The other activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements and regional and international organizations.

Author Commentary 4

A similar obligation is included under CBD Decision VIII/27, 4

Author Commentary 5

Ramsar Resolution IX.20, 12 : This provision refers to the observation that wetlands occur within all biomes, take many forms, and are influenced by many activities and therefore require integrated planning and management approaches ( Ramsar Resolution IX.20, 1 ).

Author Commentary 6

This is Operational Objective 1.1 , under programme element 1 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Implementation of integrated marine and coastal area management (IMCAM). The goal of these programme elements is to promote and improve the implementation of IMCAM at the local, national and regional level.
Suggested activities:
(a) To promote, within the framework of IMCAM, the integration of biological diversity concerns in all socio-economic sectors adversely impacting the marine and coastal environment.
(b) To promote the application of ecosystem-based management, including through integration of coastal management activities and watershed management.
(c) To identify obstacles to the implementation of IMCAM nationally and regionally, and develop and implement strategies, such as partnerships, tools and other means, to overcome those obstacles, including provision of guidance on the application of such tools.
(d) To encourage the application of the ecosystem approach, promote integrated multidisciplinary and multisectoral coastal and ocean management at the national level, and encourage States in developing ocean policies and mechanisms on integrated coastal management.
(e) To promote the identification or establishment of national and, where appropriate, regional processes for developing advice on the application of IMCAM and issues identified under the operational objective.
(f) To assist the development of national and regional capacity-building.
(g) To provide information on relevant legal and institutional issues, having regard to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) and other related international and regional agreements.
(h) To assist the development of appropriate education and public awareness programmes at all levels.
(i) To provide guidance on maintenance and wider application of local and traditional knowledge.
(j) To cooperate with and build upon the Large Marine Ecosystem (LME) concept, as well as specific LME projects that are ongoing or planned.
Ways and means
The activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements, assisted by regional and international organizations, and the Executive Secretary. An ad hoc technical expert group on implementation of integrated marine and coastal area management (SBSTTA recommendation VIII/3 A, annex) will provide guidance on implementation of activity (c).

Author Commentary 7

The capacity gaps include, inter alia, phytosanitary and quarantine control early detection and rapid response systems; incident lists on introductions of alien species, especially in relation to their further spread and impacts on biodiversity and human welfare; adequate field equipment; intersectoral planning; economic valuation; and integrated policy and legal frameworks

Author Commentary 8

Taking into account the guidance put forward in CBD Decision XI/8, 14

Author Commentary 9

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex : This is priority action 18.5 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 10

CBD Decision VI/23, 12, CBD Decision VI/23, 24 ( a , b , e , i ) and CBD Decision VII/13, 6 b address the need for risk assessment on invasive alien species, stressing different aspects: capacity-development ( CBD Decision VI/23, 12), support to decision-making and rapid response ( CBD Decision VII/13, 6 b ), and research and assessment of a number of specific features of the invasive alien species challenge ( CBD Decision VI/23, 24 ( a , b , e , i ).

Author Commentary 11

FAO Guidelines for the implementation of the Ecosystem Approach to fisheries are available on its website.

Author Commentary 12

The Millennium Ecosystem Assessment response options relevant to the implementation of the Ramsar Convention at the national level, will be provided in the forthcoming Ramsar Technical Report.

Author Commentary 13

Including the use of early-warning systems for coral bleaching, and collaborating with the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network

Author Commentary 14

Article 5 provides guidelines for implementing Article 4 , which asks parties to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit to future generations cultural and natural heritage situated on your territory, with any international assistance and co-operation you may be able to obtain.

Author Commentary 15

All States, irrespective of their geographical location, and competent international organizations have the right to conduct marine scientific research subject to the rights and duties of other States as provided for in the UNCLOS Convention.

Author Commentary 16

The rights of States to conduct Marine Scientific Research varies between the territorial sea, the exclusive economic zone, the continental shelf, the Area and the water column beyond the limits of the exclusive economic zone, as reflected in UNCLOS Articles 245 , 256 and 257 .

Author Commentary 17

The Resolution refers to the work of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, including its findings on the acidification of oceans, and to paragraph 4 of decision IX/20 adopted at the ninth meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity

Author Commentary 18

Including, in particular, elaboration of inventories and baselines to be used for, inter alia, assisting in the assessment of the status and trends of marine biodiversity and habitats, paying special attention to those ecosystems and critical habitats that are relatively unknown

Author Commentary 19

This is Operational Objective 3.5 , under programme element 3 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal protected areas. The goal of this programme elements is the establishment and maintenance of marine and coastal protected areas that are effectively managed, ecologically based and contribute to a global network of marine and coastal protected areas, building upon national and regional systems, including a range of levels of protection, where human activities are managed, particularly through national legislation, regional programmes and policies, traditional and cultural practices and international agreements, to maintain the structure and functioning of the full range of marine and coastal ecosystems, in order to provide benefits to both present and future generations.
Suggested activities
(a) To collaborate with relevant organizations in the preparation of project proposals to facilitate the implementation of the research and monitoring priorities outlined in CBD Decision VII/5, appendix 4 to ANNEX I .
(b) To identify and implement an appropriate mechanism for developing advice related to network design and ecological coherence of networks.
(c) Using the clearing-house mechanism, to assist the exchange of information on research, management issues and problems (including incentive measures) between marine protected area managers, to facilitate continuous improvement in management effectiveness across the global network / of marine protected areas.
Ways and means
Activity (a) should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements and regional and international organizations, including research organizations. The Executive Secretary should facilitate its implementation. The Executive Secretary should take the lead role in implementing activities (b) and (c).

Author Commentary 20

Article 5 provides guidelines for implementing Article 4 , which asks parties to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit to future generations cultural and natural heritage situated on your territory, with any international assistance and co-operation you may be able to obtain.