Activity 3: Enforce and implement management

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component 1: For ecosystems

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component 2: For islands and coastal zones

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

In Areas Beyond National Jurisdictions (ABNJ)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable marine and coastal areas, including in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32a
  • Respond to the loss or reduction of marine biological diversity associated with marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, CBD Decision VII/5, 62 SEE COMMENTARY 15
  • Take measures to urgently manage activities and processes under national jurisdiction and control which may have significant adverse impacts on deep seabed ecosystems and species in areas beyond national jurisdiction, CBD Decision VIII/21, 3 SEE COMMENTARY 16
  • Enhance the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity of marine living resources in areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 17

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component 3: for MPAs / vulnerable areas

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Establish marine protected areas consistent with international law and based on scientific information, including representative networks by 2012 and time/area closures for the protection of nursery grounds and periods, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 31c
  • Maintain the productivity and biodiversity of important and vulnerable marine and coastal areas, including in areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 32a
  • Protect and preserve rare or fragile ecosystems as well as the habitat of depleted, threatened or endangered species and other forms of marine life, UNCLOS Article 194,5 SEE COMMENTARY 18
  • Develop and facilitate the use of diverse approaches and tools, including the establishment of marine protected areas, including representative networks by 2012, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 53
  • Conserve vulnerable marine ecosystems, including through the establishment of marine protected areas and the development of representative networks of any such marine protected areas by 2012, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 134
  • Develop management tools, including closed areas, marine protected areas and marine reserves and criteria for their implementation, to effectively manage stradling, high seas migratory and discrete stocks and protect habitats, marine biodiversity and vulnerable marine ecosystems, including on the basis of the precautionary approach, UNFSA RC, Annex, Article 18e
  • Promote the development and importance of ecological networks for both terrestrial and marine areas, at national, regional and subregional levels, CBD Decision IX/18, A, 6c
  • Establish and strengthen national and regional systems of marine and coastal protected areas integrated into a global network and as a contribution to globally agreed goals, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 19
  • Give highest priority to wetland types identified as at greatest risk or with poorest information in inventory activities, Ramsar Resolution VII.20, 12
  • Take steps within policies and national systems of protected areas for establishment and recognition of inland, coastal and marine protected areas as a tool for biodiversity conservation and fisheries resources management, Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 36
  • Protect critical spawning and nursery grounds, and restore degraded habitats: Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 30 - SEE COMMENTARY 20
  • Protect critical spawning and nursery grounds, and restore degraded habitats: Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 30 - SEE COMMENTARY 21
  • Give priority to the designation of coastal wetlands as Wetlands of International Importance, Ramsar Resolution VIII.4, 18SEE COMMENTARY 22
  • Designate mangrove ecosystems that fulfill the criteria for inclusion in the List of Wetlands of International Importance, Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 17 - SEE COMMENTARY 23
  • Recognize the importance of mangrove ecosystems for birds and designate such areas as Ramsar sites, Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 18 - SEE COMMENTARY 24
  • Designate as Wetlands of International Importance a greater number and area of intertidal wetlands, Ramsar Resolution VII.21,14 and Ramsar Recommendation 5.1 - SEE COMMENTARY 25
  • Ensure that all new Ramsar sites have effective management planning in place before designation, as well as resources for implementing such management, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 26
  • Maintain the ecological character of all designated Ramsar sites, through planning and management, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 27
  • Develop appropriate management and achieve wise use for those internationally important wetlands that have not yet been formally designated as Ramsar sites but have been identified through domestic application of the Strategic Framework or an equivalent process, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 28
  • Maintain or restore Ramsar sites and other wetlands to reduce their vulnerability to natural disasters: Ramsar Resolution IX.9, 12 - SEE COMMENTARY 29
  • Continue to establish and implement management planning processes for Ramsar sites: Ramsar Resolution VIII.10, 35 - SEE COMMENTARY 30
  • Support the development of national and international networks of Ramsar sites and their effective management, Ramsar Resolution VIII.10, 41
  • In management planning of Ramsar sites, take the management implications of river basin-based activities into account: Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 17
  • Ensure that the boundaries of all designated Ramsar sites are accurately delineated and mapped, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 24 - SEE COMMENTARY 31
  • Ensure that management plans for Ramsar sites are developed within integrated catchment management approaches: Ramsar Resolution VIII.34, 19
  • Recognize the essential character of wetlands and ensure that the ecological character of Ramsar sites is not placed at risk: Ramsar Recommendation 5.3
  • Develop zoning measures for larger Ramsar sites and wetland reserves: Ramsar Recommendation 5.3
  • Focus on subsequent action after designation of a Ramsar site: Ramsar Recommendation 4.2
  • Request expert advice from the Advisory Bodies and the Secretariat, WHC Operational Guidelines V, A, 200
  • Address all threats, including those arising from the land (e.g. water quality, sedimentation) and shipping/transport, in order to maximize the effectiveness of marine and coastal protected areas and networks, CBD Decision VII/5, 26
  • Compensate for the loss of wetland resources when deleting or restricting the boundaries of a designated wetland, through creating additional reserves: Ramsar Article 4, 2
  • Place Ramsar sites affected by drought or other natural disasters on the Montreux record, Ramsar Resolution VIII.35, 17
  • Increase efforts to address the management problems of sites on the Montreux Record Ramsar Resolution VII.12, 24
  • Take measures for compensation any loss of wetland functions, attributes and values, Ramsar Resolution VII.24, 10
  • Take effective action to prevent or remedy changes in ecological character of wetlands: Ramsar Recommendation 4.8
  • Take effective action to prevent any further degradation of sites and restore the value of damaged sites: Ramsar Recommendation 3.9
  • Ensure that ships under your jurisdiction or control respect whale sanctuaries established under the Convention, IWC Schedule Article 8 – SEE COMMENTARY 32
  • Refrain from scientific whaling in the Sanctuary, Resolution 2000:4 – SEE COMMENTARY
  • Integrate protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors, CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex (Programme of work on protected areas)- SEE COMMENTARY 33
  • Include early warning indicators in the preparation of management plans for Ramsar sites as part of a monitoring programme, Ramsar Resolution VII.10, 13
  • Develop and apply criteria for the identification, establishment, management and monitoring of wetland reserves, Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex, 1.2
  • Take into account that certain objectives of marine and coastal protected areas, such as scientific reference areas can only be accomplished through the establishment of representative marine and coastal protected areas where extractive uses are excluded, and other significant human pressures are removed or minimized, to enable the integrity, structure and functioning of ecosystems to be maintained or recovered, CBD Decision VII/5, 23
  • Effectively conserve listed wetlands, including wardening and land-control mechanisms: Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 34
  • Pay special attention to the major role of wetlands as habitats for endangered species: Ramsar Recommendation 5.4

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

MPAs - Guidelines

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component 4: Mitigate and remove external threats

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Take further action to address destructive practices that have adverse impacts on marine biodiversity and ecosystems, including seamounts, hydrothermal vents and cold water corals, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 133
  • Address impacts on marine ecosystems within and beyond areas of national jurisdiction, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 117d and UNGA Resolution 61/222, 119
  • Enhance the protection of the marine environment from pollution and other physical impacts; UNGA Resolution 58/240, 49
  • Integrate and improve the management of risks to marine biodiversity of seamounts and certain other underwater features, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 56 – SEE COMMENTARY 74
  • Minimize pollution, waste, discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, catch of non-target species, and impacts on associated, in particular endangered, species, UNFSA Article 5f
  • Take action urgently to address destructive practices that have adverse impacts on marine biodiversity and ecosystems, including seamounts, hydrothermal vents and cold water corals, UNGA Resolution 59/24, 70 - SEE COMMENTARY 75
  • Manage urgently activities and processes under national jurisdiction and control which may have significant adverse impacts on deep seabed ecosystems and species in areas beyond national jurisdiction, CBD Decision VIII/21, 3 SEE COMMENTARY 76
  • Develop and apply effective options for preventing and mitigating the adverse impacts of human activities to selected seabed habitats, CBD Decision IX/20,11 SEE COMMENTARY 77
  • Take measures to urgently manage activities and processes under national jurisdiction and control which may have significant adverse impacts on deep seabed ecosystems and species in areas beyond national jurisdiction, CBD Decision VIII/21, 3 SEE COMMENTARY 78
  • Address consequences of degradation of key marine and coastal habitats, including mangrove ecosystems, tropical and cold-water coral-reef ecosystems, seamount ecosystems and seagrass ecosystems, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 79
  • Undertake direct action to protect the marine environment from negative impacts, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity)– SEE COMMENTARY 80

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Implement a mix of instruments for sustainable use of biodiversity, including environmental impact and strategic environmental assessment, CBD Decision V/25, 4g
  • Follow-up of authorized operations affecting wetlands, including utilization of corrective measures when required: Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex B)2.7 - SEE COMMENTARY 81
  • Prevent or remove the adverse effects of activities seriously impeding the migration of Appendix I species CMS Article III, 4b
  • Prevent or control factors endangering Appendix I species: CMS Article III, 4c
  • Avoid or minimize adverse impacts on ecosystem services, structure and functions as well as other components of ecosystems from sustainable use management goals and practices: CITES Resolution 13.2 and CITES Resolution 13.2, Annex SEE COMMENTARY 82
  • Integrate wildlife, livestock, human and ecosystem health issues into contingency planning, outbreak investigations and responses to morbidity and mortality events: CMS Resolution 9.8, 6
Climate Change

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Promote the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases, including oceans and coastal and marine ecosystems, UNFCCC Article 4, 1 - SEE COMMENTARY 83
  • Develop ways and means of adaptation to the effects of climate change on the marine environment and marine biodiversity, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 100
  • Enhance efforts to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases, in accordance with the principles contained in the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, in order to reduce and tackle projected adverse effects of climate change on the marine environment and marine biodiversity, UNGA Resolution 62/215, 83
  • Assess and address the impacts of global climate change on the sustainability of fish stocks and the habitats that support them, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 3
  • Take measures to manage coastal and marine ecosystems, including mangroves, seagrass beds and coral reefs so as to maintain their resilience to extreme climatic events, CBD Decision VII/5,8SEE COMMENTARY 84
  • Include in national climate change strategies the restoration and management of degraded lowland and coastal wetlands, resulting in the attenuation of large storms and sea-level rise, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 31
  • Recognize the importance of mangrove ecosystems and plan their management so as to ensure that they may respond to impacts caused by climate change and sea-level rise: Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 20
  • Promote sustainable management, and promote and cooperate in the conservation and enhancement of sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases including biomass, forests, oceans and other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems, UNFCCC Article 4, 1 - SEE COMMENTARY 85
  • Maintain the capacity of wetlands to adapt to climate change and continue to provide their ecosystem services, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 27
  • Take advantage of the significant opportunities to use wetlands wisely as a response option to reduce the impacts of climate change, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 28
  • Ensure that the necessary safeguards and mechanisms are in place to maintain the ecological character of wetlands due to the direct impacts of, and societal responses to, climate change, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 29
  • Reduce the degradation, promote restoration, improve management practices of peatlands and other wetland types that are significant GHG sinks, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 32
  • Implement policies that promote opportunities to take advantage of the regulatory services already provided by wetlands to the global climate system, while at the same time contributing to improving human livelihoods and meeting biodiversity goals, Ramsar Resolution X.24, 41
  • Ensure that wetland ecosystems are managed and restored, as part of contingency planning, in order to mitigate the impacts of natural phenomena, provide resilience against drought and contribute to strategies aimed at mitigating climate change and desertification: Ramsar Resolution IX.9, 14
  • Make use of the Ramsar guidance on the wise use of wetlands (the Wise Use Handbooks), in developing policy and management responses relating to climate change , Ramsar Resolution X.24, 44
  • Increase efforts to address levels of ocean acidity and the projected negative impact of such acidity on vulnerable marine ecosystems, particularly coral reefs , UNGA Resolution 63/111, 99
  • Take into account current understanding of climate change-induced increases in health and disease risk in decision-making on co-managing wetlands and human health issues, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 27

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Manage ecosystems so as to maintain their resilience against extreme climatic events and to adapt to climate change, CBD Decision VII/15, 12 - SEE COMMENTARY 86
  • Consider the potential impacts of climate change within management planning, in particular with monitoring, and risk preparedness strategies, and take early action in response, WHC Decision 29 COM 7B.a, 6
  • Integrate concerns relating to impacts of climate change and of mitigation and adaptation activities within national biodiversity strategy and action plans, CBD Decision IX/16, A, 4b SEE COMMENTARY 87
  • Enhance the integration of climate-change considerations related to biodiversity in the implementation of CBD by enhancing scientific tools, methodologies, knowledge and approaches to respond to the impacts of climate change, CBD Decision IX/16, A, 4e
  • Enhance the integration of climate-change considerations related to biodiversity in the implementation of the CBD Convention by applying the principles and guidance of the ecosystem approach, CBD Decision IX/16, A, 4h
  • Address the impacts of climate change and both the positive and negative impacts of climate change mitigation and adaptation activities on biodiversity, CBD Decision IX/16, A, 4i SEE COMMENTARY 88
  • Make use of the report of the Ad Hoc Technical Expert Group on Biological Diversity and Climate Change in order to promote synergies between the UNFCCC and the CBD when implementing climate change activities and their relation to the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, CBD Decision VII/15, 2
  • Minimize the adverse effects on the quality of the environment of projects or measures undertaken by Parties to the UNFCCC to adapt to climate change, UNFCCC Article 4.1(f) SEE COMMENTARY 89
  • Support the development of national adaptation programmes of action which will serve as a simplified and direct channel of communication of information relating to the vulnerabilities and adaptation needs of the least developed countries, UNFCCC Decision 5/CP.7, 15 - SEE COMMENTARY 90
  • Select and identify priority adaptation activities based on agreed criteria, UNFCCC Decision 28/CP.7, 1 and UNFCCC Decision 28/CP.7, Annex(Guidelines for the preparation of national adaptation programmes of action) - SEE COMMENTARY
  • Refrain from delaying related decision-making and action despite the remaining uncertainty surrounding the full scale of the impacts of climate change on migratory species: CMS Resolution 9.7, 1
  • Design and implement adaptation strategies for migratory species threatened by climate change or climate change mitigation or adaptation activities and implement related advice provided by the Scientific Council; CMS Resolution 9.7, 4
  • Implement adaptation measures that help reduce the adverse effects of climate change on Appendix I species: CMS Resolution 8.13, 3
  • Ensure that conservation and wise use of wetlands contribute to mitigation of, and adaptation to climate change, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 91
  • Prevent and mitigate negative impacts of key threats to protected areas, CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex (Programme of work on protected areas) - SEE COMMENTARY 92
  • Create viable national systems of protected areas that are resiliant to climate change, CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 93
Invasive Alien Species (IAS)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Develop measures to address invasive alien species in ballast water, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 34b
  • Take all measures necessary to prevent, reduce and control the intentional or accidental introduction of species, alien or new, to a particular part of the marine environment, UNCLOS Article 196,1
  • Put in place mechanisms to manage pathways, for potential invasive alien species, including shipping, trade and aquaculture and mariculture; CBD Decision IX/4, B, 18
  • Prevent the introduction of invasive alien species into the marine and coastal environment, and eradicate to the extent possible those invasive alien species that have already been introduced, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity)– SEE COMMENTARY 94

  • Put in place mechanisms to control all pathways, including shipping, trade and mariculture, for potential invasive alien species in the marine and coastal environment, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity)– SEE COMMENTARY 95
  • Accelerate the development of measures to address the problem of invasive alien species in ballast water, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 52 – SEE COMMENTARY 96
  • Monitor the effects of Ballast Water Management in waters under your jurisdiction, BWM Article 6,1b – SEE COMMENTARY 97
  • Prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms and Pathogens through the control and management of ships‘ Ballast Water and Sediments, BWM Article 2.1
  • Develop ballast water management standards to prevent, minimize and ultimately eliminate the transfer of Harmful Aquatic Organisms, BWM Article 2, 5 -SEE COMMENTARY 98
  • Endeavour not to impair or damage the environment, human health, property or resources when taking action pursuant to this Convention, BWM Article 2.6 and BWM Article 2.7
  • Promote implementation of recommendations of IMO to ships entitled to fly national flag, BWM Article 2, 8
  • Encourage ships flying national flag to avoid the uptake of Ballast Water with potentially Harmful Aquatic Organisms , BWM Article 2.8
  • Ensure adequate port facilities are provided for the reception of Sediments, taking into account the IMO Guidelines, for the safe disposal of sediments, BWM Article 5
  • Survey and certify ships flying national flag or operating under national authority in accordance with the Annex of the Convention , BWM Article 7,1
  • Promote aquaculture of native species to avoid accidental introduction of alien species and their parasites, CBD Decision VIII/27, 24
  • Control movements of animals used for ex situ breeding, including controlling the movements of fish between water bodies and drainage basins, CBD Decision VIII/27, 57
  • Develop guidance on the prevention, control or eradication of invasive alien species that currently and/or potentially impact the ecological character of wetlands, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 99
  • Promote procedures and actions to prevent, control or eradicate invasive alien species that currently and/or potentially impact the ecological character of wetlands, Ramsar Resolution X.1, 9 and Ramsar Resolution X.1, Annex (Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2015) – SEE COMMENTARY 100
  • Address the problems posed by invasive species in wetlands in a decisive and holistic manner: Ramsar Resolution VIII.18, 12
  • Recognise that invasions by alien species can threaten the ecological character of wetlands and ensure that measures are in place to prevent and control such invasions: Ramsar Resolution VIII.18, 19
  • Address the environmental, economic and social impact of invasive species on wetlands: Ramsar Resolution VII.14, 12
  • Take account of the control methods and solutions for combating invasive species as outlined in Ramsar COP 7 DOC.24 ; Ramsar Resolution VII.14, 13 SEE COMMENTARY 101
  • Establish programmes to target priority invasive species: Ramsar Resolution VII.14, 18b
  • Address the impact of alien species on the global spread of invasive wetland species: Ramsar Resolution VII.14, 18c
  • Develop capacity for the identification of new and dangerous alien species and the promotion of legislation and management, Ramsar Resolution VII.14, 18e
  • Regulate trans-shipment, in particular at-sea trans-shipment, UNFSA RC, Annex, Article 43c
  • Maintain an incident list on introductions of alien species, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 102

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Pollutions

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Establish regional programmes of action under the Global Programme of Action, and link these to plans for coastal and marine resources, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 33c
  • Implement the conventions and protocols and other relevant instruments of IMO relating to the enhancement of maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from marine pollution and environmental damage caused by ships, including the use of toxic anti-fouling paints, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 34a
  • Take, individually or jointly as appropriate, all measures consistent with the UNCLOS Convention that are necessary to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment from any source, UNCLOS Article 194, 1 SEE COMMENTARY 109
  • Correct the shortfall in port waste reception facilities in accordance with the action plan developed by IMO, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 110
  • Implement the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities and take all appropriate measures to fulfil commitments in the Beijing Declaration, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 111 – SEE COMMENTARY 110
  • Protect and preserve the marine environment from all sources of pollution; UNGA Resolution 59/24, 55
  • Enhance the protection of the marine environment from pollution and other physical impacts; UNGA Resolution 58/240, 49
  • Adopt all necessary and appropriate measures to prevent oil spills as a result of recent maritime accidents which result in serious damage of an environmental, social and economic nature, UNGA Resolution 57/141, 48
  • Advance the implementation of the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities and the Montreal Declaration on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities, UNGA Resolution 58/240, 49 – SEE COMMENTARY 111
  • Minimize pollution, waste, discards, catch by lost or abandoned gear, catch of non-target species, and impacts on associated, in particular endangered, species, UNFSA Article 5f
  • Implement the Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities and accelerate activity to safeguard the marine ecosystem, including fish stocks, against pollution and physical degradation, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 110
  • Take appropriate measures with regard to ships flying national flag or of national registry to address hazards that may be caused by wrecks and drifting or sunken cargo to navigation or the marine environment, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 87
  • Take account of the precautionary principle in the location of oil installations and movement of oil containers, CMS Resolution 7.3, 1g
  • Scientific research proposals on ocean fertilization should be assessed on a case-by-case basis using an assessment framework to be developed by the scientific groups under the London Convention and Protocol; UNGA Resolution 63/111,115
  • Ensure that ocean fertilization activities are not carried out until there is an adequate scientific basis on which to justify such activities, including an assessment of associated risks; UNGA Resolution 63/111,116 and CBD Decision IX/16, 4 SEE COMMENTARY 112
  • Scientific studies on ocean fertilization should be authorized only if justified by the need to gather specific scientific data, should be subject to a thorough prior assessment of the potential impacts of the research studies on the marine environment, should be strictly controlled and should not be used for generating and selling carbon offsets or for any other commercial purposes; UNGA Resolution 63/111,116
  • Support the further study and enhance understanding of ocean iron fertilization, UNGA Resolution 62/215, 89 - SEE COMMENTARY 113
  • Act in accordance with the decision of the London Convention on Ocean Fertilisation, CBD Decision IX/16, 2 SEE COMMENTARY 114
  • Encourages further studies and consideration of the impacts of ocean noise on marine living resources, UNGA Resolution 63/111,141
  • Study the impacts of ocean noise on marine living resources and submit peer-reviewed scientific studies to DOALOS, UNGA Resolution 61/222, 107
  • Control the impact of emission of man-made noise pollution in habitat of vulnerable species and in areas where marine mammals or other endangered species may be concentrated: CMS Resolution 9.19, 1
  • Adopt mitigation measures on the use of high intensity active naval sonars CMS Resolution 9.19, 2
  • Take all measures to ensure that noise levels in the Piltun feeding ground of the Western North Pacific gray whale are reduced to a minimum, IWC Resolution 2005-3 – SEE COMMENTARY 115

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Human Activities (other than fisheries)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Eliminate anthropogenic mortality in the Western North Pacific gray whale stock and to minimize anthropogenic disturbances in the migration corridor and on breeding and feeding grounds of the Western North Pacific gray whale in and around Sakhalin Islands, IWC Resolution 2004-1 – SEE COMMENTARY 118
  • Implement the conventions and protocols and other relevant instruments of IMO relating to the enhancement of maritime safety and protection of the marine environment from marine pollution and environmental damage caused by ships, including the use of toxic anti-fouling paints, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 34a
  • Ensure that any disease eradication measures in or around wetlands are undertaken in ways that do not unnecessarily jeopardise the maintenance of the ecological character of the wetlands and their ecosystem services, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 21 – SEE COMMENTARY 119
  • Develop adequate standards for farming and aquaculture, as well as strategies that limit the risk of disease transmission between wild and domestic birds through enhanced biosecurity: Ramsar Resolution IX.23, 22 - SEE COMMENTARY 120
  • Take measures, as Port State, to promote the effectiveness of subregional, regional and global conservation and management measures, UNFSA Article 23.1 – SEE COMMENTARY 121
  • Ensure that factory ships and processing plants under national jurisdictions comply with the provisions established within the framework of IWC, IWC Schedule Article 2 to 5
  • Examine and improve measures regarding safety and liability mechanisms relevant to maritime transportation of radioactive material, including, inter alia, arrangements for prior notification and consultations, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 35
  • Ensure that warships, naval auxiliary, other vessels or aircraft nationally owned or operated and used, for the time being, only on government non-commercial service, act in a manner consistent the provisions of this convention regarding the protection and preservation of the marine environment, through the adoption of appropriate measures not impairing operations or operational capabilities of such vessels or aircraft, UNCLOS Article 236 SEE COMMENTARY 122
  • Take appropriate measures with regard to ships flying national flag or of national registry to address hazards that may be caused by wrecks and drifting or sunken cargo to navigation or the marine environment, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 87
  • Prevent the operation of substandard vessels, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 94
  • Integrate the issue of marine debris into national strategies dealing with waste management in the coastal zone, ports and maritime industries, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 107
  • Correct the shortfall in port waste reception facilities in accordance with the action plan developed by IMO, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 110
  • Ensure that urban and coastal development projects and related land-reclamation activities are carried out in a responsible manner that protects the marine habitat and environment and mitigates the negative consequences of such activities, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 113
  • Support the sustainable development of aquaculture ,WSSD Plan of Implementation, 31h
  • Cooperate in achieving sustainable aquaculture, including through information exchange, developing standards, impact assessment, and adopting relevant methods and techniques to minimize and mitigate adverse effects, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 101
  • Implement the Strategy and Outline Plan for Improving Information on Status and Trends of Aquaculture , UNGA Resolution 63/112, 101
  • Prevent or minimize the negative impacts of mariculture on marine and coastal biodiversity and to enhance any positive effects of mariculture using native species, CBD Decision VII/5, 5 and CBD Decision VII/5, 5 – Annex I (CBD PoW on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity) – SEE COMMENTARY 123
  • Adopt the use of relevant methods and techniques for avoiding the adverse effects of mariculture on marine and coastal biological diversity, and incorporate them into national biodiversity strategies and action plans, CBD Decision VII/5, 44 and CBD Decision VII/5, 45 SEE COMMENTARY 124
  • Promote aquaculture of native species to avoid accidental introduction of alien species and their parasites, CBD Decision VIII/27, 24
  • Carefully control aquaculture practices in Ramsar sites and in areas that are liable to impact on Ramsar sites and other wetlands: Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 31 - SEE COMMENTARY 125
  • Enforce existing policies and legislation to suspend any promotion, creation of new facilities, or expansion of unsustainable aquaculture activities harmful to wetlands, Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 32 - SEE COMMENTARY 126
  • Suspend the promotion of unsustainable aquaculture activities harmful to coastal wetlands: Ramsar Resolution VII.21, 15
  • Ensure that activities in the seabed and ocean floor and subsoil thereof, beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, are carried out in conformity with Part XI of UNCLOS, including through the application of the rules, regulations and procedures adopted by the Authority with respect to activities in the Area to ensure effective protection of the marine environment, UNCLOS Article 139 and 145SEE COMMENTARY 127
  • Ensure that the allocation and management of water for wetlands is addressed in the design and implementation of water management projects: Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, 23
  • Ensure that, in SEA and EIA studies related to extractive industries, potential upstream and downstream impacts in river basins are fully considered through ecosystem approaches, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 17 - SEE COMMENTARY 128
  • Maintain the migration access for fish and other species past dams: Ramsar Resolution VIII.2, 14
  • Improve the health and well-being of people in harmony with wetland conservation objectives, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 20 – SEE COMMENTARY 129
  • Maintain or enhance existing ecosystem services that can contribute to the prevention of declining human health linked with wetlands, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 21
  • Avoid direct or indirect negative effects on wetlands that would impact negatively on those ecosystem services of wetlands that support human health and well-being, Ramsar Resolution X.23, 23 – SEE COMMENTARY 130
  • Ensure that the land-use planning and management of river basins and coastal zones does not adversely affect the mangrove ecosystems, Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 19
  • Formulate and implement land-use planning and management so as to minimize further future impacts on urban wetlands, Ramsar Resolution X.27, 15
  • Integrate environmental considerations in relation to wetlands into planning, Ramsar Recommendation 6.2, 5

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Carry out actions to mitigate the most serious threats to migratory species and obstacles to animal migration, in particular relating to wind turbines, power lines, by-catch, oil pollution, climate change, disease, invasive species and illegal take, CMS Resolution 8.2, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 131
  • Enhance efforts to reduce eutrophication and the spreading of hypoxic dead zones in oceans as a result of eutrophication fuelled by riverine run-off of fertilizers, sewage outfall and reactive nitrogen resulting from the burning of fossil fuels, UNGA Resolution 63/111, 112
  • Utilize the guidance available in Ramsar Resolution X.21: guidance on responding to the continued spread of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1; CMS Resolution 9.8, 8bis
  • Establish emergency response measures for Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, involving those with relevant scientific expertise, in order to ensure the provision of timely advice to governments, Ramsar Resolution X.21, 13 – SEE COMMENTARY 132
  • Implement the Guidance on responding to the continued spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza, Ramsar Resolution X.21, 22 - Ramsar Resolution X.21, Annex
  • Evaluate the possible negative ecological impacts of wind turbines on nature, particularly migratory species, prior to deciding upon permission for wind turbines, CMS Resolution 7.5, 1c
  • Assess the cumulative environmental impacts of wind turbines on migratory species, CMS Resolution 7.5, 1d
  • Take account of the precautionary principle and of environmental impact data in developing wind turbine plants, CMS Resolution 7.5, 1e
  • Implement pilot projects to test the applicability of the Guidelines on biodiversity and tourism development, CBD Decision VII/14, 6
  • Integrate the Guidelines on biodiversity and tourism into strategies and plans for tourism development, national biodiversity strategies and other sectoral strategies, CBD Decision VII/14, 10
  • Address the impacts on wetlands of the full spectrum of activities associated with extractive industries by applying the EIA guidance and other necessary measures, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 15 and Ramsar Resolution X.17, Annex
  • Consider a precautionary approach when the SEA or EIA predicts any substantial or irreversible loss of wetland ecosystem services as a result of extractive industrial activities, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 20
  • Consider compensation loss of wetland ecosystem services as a result of extractive industrial activities, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 20 - SEE COMMENTARY 133
  • Take appropriate measures/actions in order to reduce the environmental impacts of extractive activities on pristine peatlands, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 21
  • Ensure that extractive industrial development projects avoid, remedy, mitigate and compensate for the impacts of these projects, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 22
  • Ensure early notification of potential new extractive industrial projects, especially those which could affect Ramsar sites, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 23
  • Consider the creation of new wetlands or the improvement of existing wetlands in the post-closure phases of extractive industrial activities, Ramsar Resolution X.26, 26
  • Integrate biodiversity considerations into projects that include infrastructure development for cities and local authorities, CBD Decision IX/28, 3
  • Formulate and implement land-use planning and management so as to minimize further future impacts on urban wetlands, CBD Resolution X.27, 15
  • Mitigate or exclude adverse effects of wetland transformation: Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex - SEE COMMENTARY 134
  • Take appropriate measures to conserve and protect wetlands in urban and peri-urban environments, Ramsar Resolution X.27, 13
  • Provide the most valuable urban or peri-urban wetlands with appropriate conservation measures, Ramsar Resolution X.27, 15

Restrict again!

Author Commentary 1

2a. CBD Decision VIII/24, 11: Regarding inland waters, the paragraph asks to pay particular attention to creating further freshwater protected areas.

Author Commentary 2

This is Operational Objective 2.3 , under programme element 2 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal living resources. The goal of this programme elements is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources
Suggested activities
(a) Activities on coral bleaching and physical degradation and destruction of coral reefs as adopted in decision VI/3 and as amended in decision VII/5 are contained in CBD Decision VII/5, appendices 1 and 2 to ANNEX I .
Other activities relevant to non-coral ecosystems will be developed by Parties and, where appropriate, by regional organizations.
Ways and means
• The Executive Secretary should facilitate implementation, through active collaboration with International Coral Reef Initiative and its partners, the regional seas programmes of the United Nations Environment Programme, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, and other relevant organizations. The other activities should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements and regional and international organizations.

Author Commentary 3

Ramsar Resolution 5.7 : The Guidelines on management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands (available at Ramsar Resolution 5.7, Annex ) have been superseded by the New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands, which can be found at Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex .

Author Commentary 4

In accordance with national policies, laws and guidelines and while taking note of the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples

Author Commentary 5

This is Goal 1 – Wise Use of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013. The strategies developed under goal one of the Strategic Plan should apply this approach

Author Commentary 6

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex : This is priority action 17.2 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 7

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex : This is priority action 13.1 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 8

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1, Annex : This is priority action 1.3 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 9

This is priority action 1.1 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 10

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 33 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 12 on policies and strategies for mangrove ecosystems and Ramsar Resolution VII.21, 13 on policies for intertidal wetlands contribute to Ramsar Resolution VIII.4, 16 , which addresses policies and practices for coastal wetlands in general.

Author Commentary 11

The development of IMCAM included in the CBD Programme of Work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity, CBD VII/5, Annex I, Programme element 1

Author Commentary 12

This is STRATEGY 1.7 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Integrated Water Resources Management, under Goal 1 – Wise Use . Key result areas 1,2,3 and 5 are to be achieved by 2015 by Ramsar Contracting Parties:
1. All Parties to have made available the Ramsar guidance on water allocation and management for ecosystems to support Resolution-making on water resource management, as a contribution to achieving the WSSD target on water resources management and water efficiency plans.
2. All Parties, in their water governance and management, to be managing wetlands as natural water infrastructure integral to water resource management at the scale of river basins.
3. National policies or guidelines enhancing the role of wetlands in mitigation and/or adaptation to climate change in progress or completed.
4. The Convention’s role in encouraging IWRM planning established as part of international environmental efforts.
5. Parties to have formulated plans to sustain and enhance the role of wetlands in supporting and maintaining viable farming systems.

Author Commentary 13

CBD Decision VIII/1, 1 and CBD Decision VIII/1 - Annex:This is priority action 9.2 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 14

This is priority action 1.1 of the programme of work on island biodiversity.

Author Commentary 15

In particular areas with seamounts, hydrothermal vents, and cold-water corals, other vulnerable ecosystems and certain other underwater features, resulting from processes and activities in areas beyond national jurisdiction

Author Commentary 16

Pursuant paragraph 56 of decision VII/5 , activities and processes under national jurisdiction and control which may have significant adverse impacts on deep seabed ecosystems and species in these areas should have been identified. -A preliminary range of options which Parties and other States, individually or in cooperation, may utilize for the protection of deep seabed genetic resources beyond national jurisdiction, may include: (i) the use of codes of conduct, guidelines and principles; and (ii) reduction and management of threats including through: permits and environmental impact assessments; establishment of marine protected areas; prohibition of detrimental and destructive practices in vulnerable areas, , CBD Decision VIII/21, 5

Author Commentary 17

This is Operational Objective 2.4 , under programme element 2 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal living resources. The goal of this programme elements is to ensure the conservation and sustainable use of marine and coastal living resources
Suggested activities
(a) To identify threats to the biological diversity in areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, in particular areas with seamounts, hydrothermal vents, and cold-water corals, and certain other underwater features.
(b) To urgently take the necessary short-term, medium-term and long-term measures to eliminate/avoid destructive practices, consistent with international law, on scientific basis, including the application of precaution, for example, consideration, on a case by case basis, of interim prohibition of destructive practices adversely impacting the marine biological diversity associated with marine areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, in particular areas with seamounts, hydrothermal vents, and cold-water corals, other vulnerable ecosystems and certain other underwater features.
Ways and means
Activities (a) and (b) should be carried out by Parties, the United Nations General Assembly and other relevant international and regional organizations, within their mandate, and according to their rules of procedure.

Author Commentary 18

This obligation is part of UNCLOS Article 194 , entitled ” measures to prevent, reduce and control pollution of the marine environment”. However, UNCLOS Article 194, 5 specifically refers to measures taken in accordance with Part XII of UNCLOS . It can therefore be considered as further specifying all obligations of States under part XII , including the general obligation of states to protect and preserve the marine environment, as established under Article 192 .

Author Commentary 19

This is Operational Objective 3.1 , under programme element 3 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Marine and coastal protected areas. The goal of this programme elements is the establishment and maintenance of marine and coastal protected areas that are effectively managed, ecologically based and contribute to a global network of marine and coastal protected areas, building upon national and regional systems, including a range of levels of protection, where human activities are managed, particularly through national legislation, regional programmes and policies, traditional and cultural practices and international agreements, to maintain the structure and functioning of the full range of marine and coastal ecosystems, in order to provide benefits to both present and future generations.
Suggested activities
(a) To establish effective marine and coastal biodiversity management frameworks as set out in CBD Decision VII/5, appendix 3 to ANNEX I , which would comprise sustainable management practices and actions to protect biodiversity over the wider marine and coastal environment, including integrated networks of marine and coastal protected areas consisting of:
(i) Marine and coastal protected areas, where threats are managed for the purpose of biodiversity conservation and/or sustainable use and where extractive uses may be allowed; and
(ii) Representative marine and coastal protected areas where extractive uses are excluded, and other significant human pressures are removed or minimized, to enable the integrity, structure and functioning of ecosystems to be maintained or recovered.
In establishing these frameworks, the appropriate balance between categories (i) and (ii) above would be selected by the country concerned.
Ways and means:
Activity (a) should be carried out by Parties acting individually or under regional agreements and regional and international organizations. Funding agencies should support implementation of these activities.

Author Commentary 20

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 30: The paragraph asks to take into account the Guidelines for allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands ( Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, Annex ), the Principles and guidelines for incorporating wetland issues into Integrated Coastal Zone Management (Ramsar Resolution VIII.4, Annex ), and the guidance contained in Ramsar Resolution VIII.32 on mangrove ecosystems

Author Commentary 21

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 30 : The paragraph asks to take into account the Guidelines for allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands ( Ramsar Resolution VIII.1, Annex ), the Principles and guidelines for incorporating wetland issues into Integrated Coastal Zone Management ( Ramsar Resolution VIII.4, Annex ), and the guidance contained in Ramsar Resolution VIII.32 on mangrove ecosystems

Author Commentary 22

Applying for this purpose the Strategic Framework and guidelines for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance ( Resolution VII.11 ) and the additional guidance for the identification and designation of mangroves and coral reefs adopted by this meeting ( Resolution VIII.11 );

Author Commentary 23

Ramsar Resolution VIII.11, 5 -7 calls on Parties to designate suitable peatlands, wet grasslands, mangroves and coral reefs for inclusion in the List of Wetlands of International Importance. The resolution points to the Guidance for identifying and designating peatlands, wet grasslands, mangroves and coral reefs as Wetlands of International Importance in the annex as well as to the Strategic Framework and guidelines for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance, contained in Ramsar Resolution VII.11, Annex . Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 17 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 18 are also about the designation of mangroves as Ramsar sites, emphasizing those sites that are important for local communities and indigenous peoples, and recognizing the importance of mangrove ecosystems for migratory and non-migratory birds.

Author Commentary 24

Ramsar Resolution VIII.11, 5 -7 calls on Parties to designate suitable peatlands, wet grasslands, mangroves and coral reefs for inclusion in the List of Wetlands of International Importance. The resolution points to the Guidance for identifying and designating peatlands, wet grasslands, mangroves and coral reefs as Wetlands of International Importance in the annex as well as to the Strategic Framework and guidelines for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance, contained in Ramsar Resolution VII.11, Annex . Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 17 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.32, 18 are also about the designation of mangroves as Ramsar sites, emphasizing those sites that are important for local communities and indigenous peoples, and recognizing the importance of mangrove ecosystems for migratory and non-migratory birds.

Author Commentary 25

Ramsar Recommendation 5.1 specifically refers to the importance of Ramsar sites along the East Asia flyway

Author Commentary 26

This is STRATEGY 2.1 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Management planning – new Ramsar sites, under Goal 2 – Develop and maintains an international network of wetlands. The key result area, to be achieved by 2015, is the ensure that adequate management planning processes are established and submitted with all or most new site designations or a commitment made to work towards that goal, taking into account the possible lack of financial and human resources to fulfill this objective, and recognizing that the designation of a site can work as an incentive for the establishment of future management planning. (Including on subnational level, by wetland managers)

Author Commentary 27

This is STRATEGY 2.1 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Ramsar site ecological character, under Goal 2 – Develop and maintain an international network of wetlands. There are five key result areas, to be achieved by 2015:
1. Progress in developing effective management plans for all Ramsar sites within each Party’s territory.
2. Management objectives, as part of management planning, for ecological character maintenance established for all Ramsar sites.
3. Zoning measures to be put in place for larger Ramsar sites, wetland reserves, and other wetlands ( Recommendation 5.3 and Resolution VIII.14 ) and strict protection measures to be enacted for certain Ramsar sites and other wetlands of small size and/or particular sensitivity. (Subnational: wetland managers)
4. Cross-sectoral site management committees in place for Ramsar sites, involving relevant government agencies, citizens and local communities, and other stakeholders, including the business sector as appropriate, in place, including as a mechanism for dispute settlement. (Subnational: wetland managers)
5. Statements of ecological character finalized for all Ramsar sites and used as a basis for implementing Article 3.2 of the Convention. (Subnational: wetland managers)

Author Commentary 28

This is STRATEGY 2.7 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Management of other internationally important wetlands, under Goal 2 – Develop and maintain an international network of wetlands. The key result area, to be achieved by 2015, is to ensure the application of Ramsar guidance on the maintenance of ecological character, with a priority upon recognized internationally important wetlands not yet designated as Ramsar sites. (National: CPs; Subnational: wetland managers)

Author Commentary 29

Ramsar Resolution IX.9, 12: See also Ramsar Resolution VIII.35 on the impacts of natural disasters, particularly drought, on wetland ecosystems, and Ramsar Resolution VIII.1 on the Guidelines for the allocation and management of water for maintaining the ecological functions of wetlands.

Author Commentary 30

Ramsar Resolution VII.12, 19 specifies Ramsar Recommendation 6.13, 7 and Ramsar Resolution 5.7 (these two being almost identical) and Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex , which in addition asks for a regular review of management plans.

Author Commentary 31

Ramsar Resolution IX.1, 6 , Ramsar Resolution IX.15, 28 , Ramsar Article 2.5 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.10, 31 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 10 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 16 , Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 17 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 5 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 6 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 7 , Ramsar Resolution 5.3 , Ramsar Resolution 4.5 and Ramsar Recommendation 4.7 are all about the procedure of designating new Ramsar sites or informing the Ramsar Bureau about changes to existing sites. This should happen through using the Ramsar Information Sheet (RIS), for which Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, Annex I in combination with Ramsar Resolution IX.1, Annex B provide a revised format. Resolution VIII.13, 16 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, 17 recommend to use the guidance from the Explanatory Note and Guidelines for completing the Information Sheet on Ramsar Wetlands, contained in Ramsar Resolution VIII.13, Annex II . These provisions supersede all the earlier guidance from Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 5 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 6 , Ramsar Resolution VI.16, 7 , Ramsar Resolution 5.3 , Ramsar Resolution 4.5 and Ramsar Recommendation 4.7 .

Author Commentary 32

Article V of the ICRW provides for the fixing of open and closed waters, including the designation of Sanctuary areas. It is forbidden to use a factory ship or whale catcher attached thereto, for the purpose of taking or treating baleen whales, except minke whales, in any of the following areas:
(a) in the waters north of 66°N, except that from 150°E eastwards as far as 140°W, the taking or killing of baleen whales by a factory ship or whale catcher shall be permitted between 66°N and 72°N;
(b) in the Atlantic Ocean and its dependent waters north of 40°S;
(c) in the Pacific Ocean and its dependent waters east of 150°W between 40°S and 35°N;
(d) in the Pacific Ocean and its dependent waters west of 150°W between 40°S and 20°N;
(e) in the Indian Ocean and its dependent waters north of 40°S.

Author Commentary 33

4 CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : The programme of work on protected areas carries a range of provisions relevant for establishing and managing inland water protected areas. Goal 1.1 asks for establishing and strengthening of national and regional protected area systems integrated into a global network; goal 1.2 for the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors; goal 1.4 for a substantially improvement of site-based protected area planning and management; and goal 1.5 for the prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas. Goal 2.1 aims for the promotion of equity and benefit-sharing; goal 4.1 for developing and adopting of minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems. Goal 4.2 addresses the evaluation and improvement of the effectiveness of protected areas management.

Author Commentary 34

Ramsar Recommendation 2.3, Annex : The Framework for Implementing the Convention carries a number of provisions relevant for aspects of wetland management: Provision of measures to mitigate or exclude any adverse effects of wetland transformation, including compensation measures, if transformation of wetlands is planned (national measures number 2.6 ); monitoring and follow-up of authorized operations affecting wetlands including the adoption and utilization of corrective measures where required (2.7); definition and implementation of measures required to maintain the ecological character of wetlands (3.1); promotion of the sustainable management of wetlands to avoid over-exploitation of wetlands resources, and to provide for a firm social and economic basis for wetland conservation (3.2); effective conservation of listed wetlands, including wardening, development of buffer zones, and other land-use control mechanisms (5.2).

Author Commentary 35

This paragraph notes that for some properties, human use would not be appropriate.

Author Commentary 36

This paragraph notes that for some properties, human use would not be appropriate.

Author Commentary 37

4 CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : The programme of work on protected areas carries a range of provisions relevant for establishing and managing inland water protected areas. Goal 1.1 asks for establishing and strengthening of national and regional protected area systems integrated into a global network; goal 1.2 for the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors; goal 1.4 for a substantially improvement of site-based protected area planning and management; and goal 1.5 for the prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas. Goal 2.1 aims for the promotion of equity and benefit-sharing; goal 4.1 for developing and adopting of minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems. Goal 4.2 addresses the evaluation and improvement of the effectiveness of protected areas management.

Author Commentary 38

3.b This is priority action 12.2 of the programme of work on island biodiversity. It specifies the provisions of the CBD programme of work on protected areas ( CBD Decision VII/28, Annex ) for islands and links it to climate change.

Author Commentary 39

4 CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : The programme of work on protected areas carries a range of provisions relevant for establishing and managing inland water protected areas. Goal 1.1 asks for establishing and strengthening of national and regional protected area systems integrated into a global network; goal 1.2 for the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors; goal 1.4 for a substantially improvement of site-based protected area planning and management; and goal 1.5 for the prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas. Goal 2.1 aims for the promotion of equity and benefit-sharing; goal 4.1 for developing and adopting of minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems. Goal 4.2 addresses the evaluation and improvement of the effectiveness of protected areas management.

Author Commentary 40

Refer to Articles 1 and 2 for definitions of cultural and natural heritage. Assistance and cooperation may particularly be financial, artistic, scientific and technical.

Author Commentary 41

Outstanding universal value means cultural and/or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and to be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity. As such, the permanent protection of this heritage is of the highest importance to the international community as a whole. The Committee defines the criteria for the inscription of properties on the World Heritage List.

Author Commentary 42

This obligation is aimed at supporting the establishment of a representative, balanced and credible World Heritage List. Measures suggested for slowing down the submission rate include spacing voluntarily the nomination; proposing only properties falling into categories still under-represented; linking each nomination with a nomination presented by a State Party whose heritage is under-represented; and deciding on a voluntary basis to suspend the presentation of new nominations.

Author Commentary 43

Select wetlands for the List on account of their international significance in terms of ecology, botany, zoology, limnology or hydrology, Ramsar Article 2,2

Author Commentary 44

Ramsar Resolution VIII.38, 13 updates the guidance from Ramsar Resolution VI.4, 8 -10 . urging to use the third edition of Waterbird Population Estimates as the basis for identifying the 1% threshold for Ramsar sites. The Wetlands International publication Waterbird Population Estimates is available at http://www.wetlands.org/pubs&/WPE.htm. The Strategic Framework and guidelines for the future development of the List of Wetlands of International Importance is included in Ramsar Resolution VII. 11, Annex .

Author Commentary 45

Obligation applies to developing countries

Author Commentary 46

3.a This is priority action 2.1 of the programme of work on island biodiversity. It specifies the provisions of the CBD programme of work on protected areas ( CBD Decision VII/28, Annex ) for islands.

Author Commentary 47

3d. CBD Decision VIII/24, 34: The tools that the paragraph is referring to are described in paragraph 29 of the same decision.

Author Commentary 48

4 CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : The programme of work on protected areas carries a range of provisions relevant for establishing and managing inland water protected areas. Goal 1.1 asks for establishing and strengthening of national and regional protected area systems integrated into a global network; goal 1.2 for the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors; goal 1.4 for a substantially improvement of site-based protected area planning and management; and goal 1.5 for the prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas. Goal 2.1 aims for the promotion of equity and benefit-sharing; goal 4.1 for developing and adopting of minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems.Goal 4.2 addresses the evaluation and improvement of the effectiveness of protected areas management.

Author Commentary 49

4 CBD Decision VII/28, 5 and CBD Decision VII/28, Annex : The programme of work on protected areas carries a range of provisions relevant for establishing and managing inland water protected areas. Goal 1.1 asks for establishing and strengthening of national and regional protected area systems integrated into a global network; goal 1.2 for the integration of protected areas into broader land- and seascapes and sectors; goal 1.4 for a substantially improvement of site-based protected area planning and management; and goal 1.5 for the prevention and mitigation of the negative impacts of key threats to protected areas. Goal 2.1 aims for the promotion of equity and benefit-sharing; goal 4.1 for developing and adopting of minimum standards and best practices for national and regional protected area systems. Goal 4.2 addresses the evaluation and improvement of the effectiveness of protected areas management.

Author Commentary 50

Authenticity and integrity are defined at WHC Operational Guidelines II.E, 79 -95.

Author Commentary 51

Boundaries to properties under criteria vii-x (natural World Heritage sites, see WHC Operational Guidelines II.D, 77) should reflect the spatial requirements of habitats, species, processes or phenomena that provide the basis for their inscription on the World Heritage List (WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 101).

Author Commentary 52

The buffer zone should include the immediate setting of the nominated property, and areas and attributes that are functionally important as a support to the property (see WHC Operational Guidelines II.F, 104).

Author Commentary 53

Elements of an effective management system could include: a) a thorough shared understanding of the property by all stakeholders; b) a cycle of planning, implementation, monitoring, evaluation and feedback; c) the involvement of partners and stakeholders; d) the allocation of necessary resources; e) capacity-building; and f) an accountable, transparent description of how the management system functions.
State Parties are urged to make use of the “Policy Document on the Impacts of Climate Change on World Heritage Properties”, WHC-07/31.COM/7.1 , and the “Strategy for Risk Reduction at World Heritage Properties”, WHC-07/31.COM/7.2 , so as to protect natural heritage properties.

Author Commentary 54

This is STRATEGY 2.6 of the Ramsar Strategic Plan 2009-2013 – Ramsar site status, under Goal 2 – Develop and maintain an international network of wetlands. There are three key result area, to be achieved by 2015:
1. All Parties with Ramsar sites whose ecological character has changed, is changing or is likely to change owing to human-induced actions to have reported this to the Ramsar Secretariat, in line with the requirements of Article 3.2 of the Convention. (National: CPs)
2. For all sites on the Montreux Record that have not been the subject of a Ramsar Advisory Mission (RAM), intended to provide advice on the steps needed to remove those sites from the Record, Parties to request such a Mission. (National: CPs)
3. Implementation of relevant STRP ecological outcome-oriented indicators of effectiveness of the Convention. (Global: STRP; National: CPs)

Author Commentary 55

The Montreux Record is a voluntary mechanism to highlight specific wetland sites that have been designated as wetlands of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, but which are facing immediate challenges. In particular, the Montreux Record is a register of listed Ramsar sites where changes in ecological character have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur as a result of technological developments, pollution, or other human interference. Annex 2 of Resolution X.13 provides a List of Ramsar sites in which human-induced negative changes have occurred, are occurring, or are likely to occur (Article 3.2 2), as indicated in COP10 National Reports.

Author Commentary 56

Under this paragraph, specific actions are required by the governments of Germany, Ukraine, Greece, India, Kenya, Tanzania, Nicaragua, United Arab Emirates, the Republic of Korea, China, Iraq, Nepal, Malaysia and Australia.

Author Commentary 57

Article 5 provides guidelines for implementing Article 4 , which asks parties to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit to future generations cultural and natural heritage situated on your territory, with any international assistance and co-operation you may be able to obtain.

Author Commentary 58

Article 5 provides guidelines for implementing Article 4 , which asks parties to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit to future generations cultural and natural heritage situated on your territory, with any international assistance and co-operation you may be able to obtain.

Author Commentary 59

• Promote their participation in relevant bodies and assessments
• Ensure full transparency of the assessment process
• Facilitate the exchange of information among all stakeholders
• Provide the necessary capacity and funding

Author Commentary 60

Ramsar Resolution VIII.2, 12 and Ramsar Resolution VII.8, 12 are almost identical, while CBD Resolution VI/10, A.2.c, in endorsing the Ramsar guidelines, provides for a synergistic approach between these conventions. Ramsar Resolution VII.8, 12 adds another dimension. The Ramsar Guidelines for establishing and strengthening local communities’ and indigenous people’s participation in the management of wetlands can be found at Ramsar Resolution VII.8, Annex .

Author Commentary 61

Ramsar Resolution IX.20, 13: The paragraph makes reference to programme element 1 of the CBD programme of work on protected areas in CBD Resolution VII/28, Annex and its provisions on planning, selecting, establishing, strengthening and managing protected area systems and sites.

Author Commentary 62

http://whc.unesco.org/en/globalstrategy - Voeg uitleg toe over het belang van de strategie inzake ondervertegenwoordiging Mariene Sites

Author Commentary 63

Article 5 provides guidelines for implementing Article 4 , which asks parties to identify, protect, conserve, present and transmit to future generations cultural and natural heritage situated on your territory, with any international assistance and cooperation you may be able to obtain.

Author Commentary 64

This is target 2.3 in the Strategic Plan 2006-2011, under objective 2 : To ensure that migratory species benefit from the best possible conservation measures

Author Commentary 65

This is target 2.7 in the Strategic Plan 2006-2011, under objective 2 : To ensure that migratory species benefit from the best possible conservation measures.

Author Commentary 66

Ramsar Resolution IX.1, 7 and Ramsar Resolution IX.1, Annex C: The Integrated framework for the Ramsar Convention’s water-related guidance provides background on the links between wetland ecosystems and water resources management; explores how Ramsar's water-related guidance addresses water in the context of the hydrological cycle; illustrates Ramsar's role in integrated water resources management; explains the linkages between the various elements of Ramsar's water-related guidance (scientific tools, policy and institutional aspects, basin planning and management frameworks); and indicates cross-references to other Ramsar guidance related to the conservation and wise use of wetlands.

Author Commentary 67

Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 10, Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 13 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex: The New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands supersede the Guidelines on management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands.

Author Commentary 68

Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 10, Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, 13 and Ramsar Resolution VIII.14, Annex: The New Guidelines for management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands supersede the Guidelines on management planning for Ramsar sites and other wetlands.

Author Commentary 69

The Ramsar Strategic Framework stipulates that Contracting Parties are expected to identify sites of international importance within an agreed biogeographic regionalization. Ramsar Resolution X.20 – Annex, provides supplementary guidance on the application of biogeographic regionalization schemes, includes a section on Marine bioregionalization schemes.

Author Commentary 70

This refers to section 4b (iii) of the new format for the nomination of properties for inscription on the World Heritage List.