Activity 4: Monitoring of Marine and Coastal Biodiversity

Below are the global and regional obligations in this activity:
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Component1: Guidelines (Indicators and Targets)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Adopt mechanisms to monitor and reduce discards; UNFSA RC, Annex, Article 18h

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Integrate wildlife, livestock, human and ecosystem health issues into monitoring and surveillance; CMS Resolution 9.8, 6
Component2: Research Requirements

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component3: Fisheries and Fish stocks (including sharks)

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Apply stock-specific precautionary reference points to ensure that populations of harvested stocks and associated species, are maintained at, or restored to, sustainable levels, and to use these reference points for triggering conservation and management action, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 8 – SEE COMMENTARY 23
  • Develop, fully implement, and, continue to improve robust observer programmes, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 10
  • Cooperate with FOA in the implementation and further development of the Fisheries Resources Monitoring System initiative, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 12
  • Ensure that fisheries and other ecosystem data collection is performed in a coordinated and integrated manner , UNGA Resolution 63/112, 99
  • Encourage research and ensure monitoring of the stocks of sturgeon and paddlefish to promote sustainable fisheries, CITES Resolution 12.7 (Rev. COP 14)
  • Monitor trade in sturgeon products by implementing a range of measures, CITES Resolution 12.7 (Rev. COP 14) SEE COMMENTARY 8
  • Participate in the International Monitoring, Control and Surveillance Network for Fisheries-related Activities, UNFSA RC, Annex, Article 43e, and UNGA Resolution 63/112, 68
  • Review national and regional programmes for the systematic collection of ecological and socio-economic data on fisheries and on aquaculture of relevance to Ramsar sites, Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 29
  • Improve the monitoring and reporting of shark-catch, bycatch, and discards, market and international trade data, at the species level where possible, CITES Decision 14.115 - SEE COMMENTARY 9
  • Establish effective monitoring, reporting and enforcement, and control of fishing vessels, including by flag States, to further the International Plan of Action on IUU Fishing, WSSD Plan of Implementation, 31d
  • Establish mandatory vessel monitoring, control and surveillance systems, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 62
  • Develop and adopt effective monitoring, control and surveillance measures for trans-shipment, UNGA Resolution 63/112, 67
  • Implement and enforce conservation and management measures through effective monitoring, control and surveillance, UNFSA Article 5l
  • Ensure that all vessels fishing on the high seas carry vessel monitoring systems as soon as practicable, UNFSA RC, Annex, Article 43n

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component4: Cetaceans

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Submit information, including on increasing levels of heavy metals, organochlorines and PCBs in whales, especially sperm whales, and the effects of shipping and offshore mining and drilling activities, IWC Resolution 1981:7
  • Report by-catch of Dall’s Porpoise on an annual basis, IWC Resolution 2001-12
  • Collect and inventory skin or meat samples for DNA identification from baleen whales, CITES Resolution 11.4 (Rev. CoP12) – SEE COMMENTARY 10
  • Inventory all frozen whale parts and derivatives possessed in commercial quantities , CITES Resolution 11.4 (Rev. CoP12) – SEE COMMENTARY 11
  • Establish measures to monitor the composition of whale meat stockpiles, and report this to the Commission, IWC Resolution 1995:6

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component5: Turtles

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!
Component6: Birds

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Monitor cormorant populations, CMS Recommendation 4.1 , SEE COMMENTARY 16
  • Monitor the impacts of oil pollution on migratory species: CMS Resolution 7.3, 1a
  • Ensure a fully integrated and participatory approach for HPAI and other animal-borne diseases in migratory birds by supporting monitoring projects CMS Resolution 9.8, 1
  • Monitor the spread of Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza and cooperate with national authorities in case of special temporary hunting regulations: CMS Resolution 8.27, 7SEE COMMENTARY 17
Component7: Human Activities

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Keep under surveillance the effects of any activities which are permitted nationally or in which Parties are engaged in order to determine whether these activities are likely to pollute the marine environment, UNCLOS Article 204, 2
  • Undertake further studies on the extent and nature of the problem of marine debris, UNGA Resolution 60/30, 65
  • Take action to address the issue of lost or abandoned fishing gear and related marine debris, including through the collection of data on gear loss, economic costs to fisheries and other sectors, and the impact on marine ecosystems, UNGA Resolution 60/31, 77 – SEE COMMENTARY 25
  • Carefully control aquaculture practices in Ramsar sites and in areas that are liable to impact on Ramsar sites and other wetlands: Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 31 - SEE COMMENTARY 18

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Monitor and assess impacts of tourism on biodiversity, CBD Decision V/25, 4c
  • Pay attention to the need for long-term monitoring and assessment, including indicators, to measure impacts of tourism on biodiversity, CBD Decision V/25, 4
  • Monitor the effects of processes and categories of activities which have or are likely to have significant adverse impacts on the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity through sampling and other techniques. CBD Art. 7c
Component8: Climate Change

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Improve monitoring to predict and identify coral bleaching events, UNGA Resolution 61/222, 103
  • Encourage and support multidisciplinary approaches to action relating to coral-reef research and monitoring in relation to coral bleaching, CBD Decision V/3, 6,b SEE COMMENTARY 26

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

Component9: Data Collection requirements

Directly relevant obligations and commitments

  • Collect and inventory skin or meat samples for DNA identification from baleen whales, CITES Resolution 11.4 (Rev. CoP12) – SEE COMMENTARY 21
  • Inventory all frozen whale parts and derivatives possessed in commercial quantities , CITES Resolution 11.4 (Rev. CoP12) – SEE COMMENTARY 22

Indirectly relevant obligations and commitments

    No obligations!

Restrict again!

Author Commentary 1

This is Operational Objective 5.3, under programme element 5 of the CBD program of work on Marine and Coastal Biodiversity: Invasive alien species. The goal of this programme element is to prevent the introduction of invasive alien species into the marine and coastal environment, and to eradicate to the extent possible those invasive alien species that have already been introduced.

Author Commentary 2

Such research and monitoring should include observation, measurement, sampling, evaluation and analysis of the effectiveness and adverse impacts of any technology or methodology as well as any adverse impacts caused by such organisms and pathogens that have been identified to have been transferred through ships‘ Ballast Water.

Author Commentary 3

CBD Article 7 requires Parties to identify and monitor biodiversity.

Author Commentary 4

This obligation applies to Range States

Author Commentary 5

This paragraph reinforces the obligations set out in Article IV.3 .

Author Commentary 6

Whenever a the export of specimens of any such species should be limited in order to maintain that species throughout its range at a level consistent with its role in the ecosystems in which it occurs and well above the level at which that species might become eligible for inclusion in Appendix I, suitable measures should be taken to limit the grant of export permits for specimens of that species.

Author Commentary 7

paragraph reinforces the obligations set out in Article IV.3 .

Author Commentary 8

The most important monitoring obligations for Parties can be found under CITES Resolution 12.7 (Rev. COP 14), sub items a, b, c, d.

Author Commentary 9

Obligation for shark fishing and trading entities, particularly the major fishing or trading entities,

Author Commentary 10

This action is required when for specimens taken in a directed harvest, taken in aboriginal subsistence hunts or taken incidentally to other fishing operations, and if any specimens from these whales will be entered into commerce;

Author Commentary 11

Indicating the species, quantity and geographic origin and collect and inventory skin or meat samples for DNA identification from all such frozen whale specimens;

Author Commentary 12

CITES Decision 13.38, c applies to States and territories in the wider Caribbean region.

Author Commentary 13

This Recommendation applies only to Range States of the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and eastern Atlantic Ocean regions:

Author Commentary 14

CITES Decision 13.38, c applies to States and territories in the wider Caribbean region.

Author Commentary 15

This Recommendation applies to the Range States of the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and eastern Atlantic Ocean regions.

Author Commentary 16

Provisions relevant to assessments are contained under Recommendation 4.1, d and e , and the Annex , Guidelines for the conservation and management of the Great Cormorant, principle c

Author Commentary 17

Obligation directed to hunting communities:

Author Commentary 18

Ramsar Resolution IX.4, 31 : Reference is made to the 1997 FAO Code of Conduct and its associated Technical Guidelines for Responsible Fisheries - Aquaculture Development
(http://www.fao.org/figis/servlet/static?xml=CCRF_prog.xml&dom=org) and the 2000 Bangkok Declaration and Strategy for Aquaculture Development
(http://www.fao.org/fi/oldsite/eims_search/advanced_s_result.asp?title=Bangkok%20declaration&sortorder=3&form_c=AND&lang=en) (Network of Aquaculture Centres in Asia-Pacific (NACA)/FAO)).

Author Commentary 19

The objective of this obligation is to enhance the integration of climate-change considerations related to biodiversity in the implementation of the CBD Convention.

Author Commentary 20

The objective of this obligation is to enhance the integration of climate-change considerations related to biodiversity in the implementation of the CBD Convention.

Author Commentary 21

This action is required when for specimens taken in a directed harvest, taken in aboriginal subsistence hunts or taken incidentally to other fishing operations, and if any specimens from these whales will be entered into commerce;

Author Commentary 22

Indicating the species, quantity and geographic origin and collect and inventory skin or meat samples for DNA identification from all such frozen whale specimens;

Author Commentary 23

These precautionary reference points are described in Annex II to the Agreement and in the Code for responsible fisheries

Author Commentary 24

This Recommendation applies to the Range States of the Pacific Ocean, Indian Ocean and eastern Atlantic Ocean regions.

Author Commentary 25

This obligation has been reaffirmed by UNGA Resolution 63/112, 111

Author Commentary 26

Including the use of early-warning systems for coral bleaching, and collaborating with the International Coral Reef Initiative and the Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network